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Helen (Main)

Helen (Main)


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Helen adalah tragedi Yunani oleh Euripides (c. Biasanya dianggap pertama kali dilakukan di Great Dionysia tahun 412 SM dan merupakan sebahagian daripada trilogi yang merangkumi kehilangan Euripides Andromeda. Helen menceritakan versi mitos Helen of Troy yang tidak biasa di mana hantu hantu, sebuah eidolon, menggantikan Helen di Troy sementara Helen yang sebenarnya menunggu berakhirnya Perang Trojan di Mesir. Sejak persembahan pertama, Euripides ' Helen telah hairan dan terpesona: dalam dirinya Thesmophoriazusae, dilakukan tahun selepas Euripides ' Helen, Penulis drama komedi Yunani, Aristophanes akan melancarkan "Helen baru" (baris 850). Hingga hari ini, para sarjana terus memperdebatkan banyak aspek Helen Euripides, termasuk penjelasan komik dan kehancurannya, relevan dengan kontemporari, dan mesejnya mengenai hakikat kebenaran dan realiti.

Euripides

Dilahirkan sekitar 484 SM, Euripides adalah yang termuda dari tiga tragedi Athena yang dianggap "kanonik" sejak zaman kuno (dua yang lain adalah Aeschylus dan Sophocles). Dari 90 atau lebih drama yang dikarangnya sepanjang hayatnya, 18 bertahan sepenuhnya (salah satu tragedi yang diturunkan di bawah namanya, Rhesus, secara universal dianggap sebagai palsu). Oleh itu, terdapat lebih banyak permainan yang masih bertahan oleh Euripides daripada oleh Aeschylus dan Sophocles, yang menunjukkan bahawa selepas kematiannya Euripides tidak lama lagi mengalahkan kedua-dua pendahulunya.

Walaupun sepanjang hayatnya sendiri, Euripides terkenal sebagai tragedi paling hebat & avant-garde.

Tidak banyak yang diketahui mengenai kehidupan Euripides, dan sedikit maklumat yang kita miliki dikaburkan oleh dongeng dan mewah. Dia dilahirkan dari keluarga imam turun-temurun di pulau Salamis, dekat Athens. Dia dikatakan telah berkahwin dua kali, walaupun kedua-dua perkahwinan itu berakhir dengan teruk. Dari salah satu perkahwinannya, dia mempunyai tiga anak lelaki, salah satunya menjadi tragedi juga. Di atas segalanya, Euripides terkenal sebagai peninggalan, yang terkenal tinggal di sebuah gua di Salamis (yang menjadi tempat suci baginya setelah kematiannya). Akhirnya, dia pensiun ke istana Raja Archelaus dari Macedon, di mana dia meninggal pada tahun 406 SM.

Euripides terkenal dengan permainannya. Ini dilakukan di pelbagai festival, terutama Dionysia dan Lenaia, di panggung luar yang besar. Sebilangan besar drama Euripides dilakukan di Athens untuk penonton penduduk tempatan dan pelancong, walaupun beberapa karyanya akan dihasilkan di tempat lain: di Macedon, di mana Euripides menghabiskan tahun-tahun terakhir hidupnya, atau Sicily, di mana dia nampaknya sangat terkenal. Walaupun sepanjang hayatnya sendiri, Euripides terkenal sebagai yang paling berani dan bersikap tragedi hebat. Bagaimanapun, ini tidak selalu berjaya. Selama karier yang merangkumi setengah abad (Euripides menghasilkan trilogi pertamanya sekitar 455 SM dan terus menyusun tragedi hingga kematiannya) Euripides memenangi hadiah pertama hanya empat kali sepanjang hidupnya (kali kelima selepas kematian). Sebaliknya, Aeschylus dikatakan telah menang sebanyak 13 kali dan Sophocles 18. Tragedi Euripides - penuh dengan keputusasaan, kebaruan, dan pertanyaan tanpa henti - kadang-kadang dianggap sensasi dan bahkan tidak masuk akal. Tetapi kemasyhuran dan populariti Euripides bertambah setelah kematiannya sementara Aeschylus dan Sophocles merosot. Hari ini ada yang menganggap Euripides sebagai tragedi Athena yang paling besar.

Mitos

Mitos Helen boleh dikatakan terkenal dari epik Homeric, the Iliad dan juga Odyssey, yang biasanya dianggap berasal dari abad ke-8 atau ke-7 SM. Di dalam Iliad, kita dapati Helen di Troy tinggal bersama kekasihnya Paris: dia datang ke kota setelah melarikan diri dari suaminya, raja Spartan Menelaus, dan selama sepuluh tahun, Menelaus dan orang-orang Yunani bertempur untuk mendapatkannya kembali. Di dalam Odyssey, Perang Trojan telah berakhir dengan kejatuhan Troy dan Helen kembali ke Sparta bersama Menelaus.

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Antara Homer dan Euripides, banyak penulis menceritakan semula episod dari mitos Helen. Perkahwinan Helen dan Perang Trojan sepertinya telah dijelaskan dalam pseudo-Hesiodic Katalog Wanita (serpihan 23a, 197-204 M-W), mungkin disusun pada abad ke-7 atau ke-6 SM. Sappho (sekitar 620-570 SM), menjelaskan dalam salah satu puisinya bagaimana Helen meninggalkan suami dan keluarganya ketika dia berlayar dengan Paris (Sappho 16). Euripides sendiri, dalam tragedi itu Wanita Trojan tahun 415 SM, mengadakan pertemuan Helen dengan Menelaus yang pahit setelah kejatuhan Troy.

Di Euripides ' Helen, kita berhadapan dengan versi mitos di mana Helen sama sekali tidak pernah pergi ke Troy.

Tetapi di Euripides ' Helen, kita berhadapan dengan versi mitos di mana Helen sama sekali tidak pernah pergi ke Troy. Mengikut tragedi ini, Helen telah pergi ke Mesir sementara para dewa memberikan Paris hantu yang berpakaian seperti dirinya. Itu adalah untuk hantu yang dilancarkan Perang Trojan. Sementara itu, Helen menghabiskan 17 tahun menunggu di Menelaus di Mesir. Pada mulanya, dia berada di bawah perlindungan raja Mesir, Proteus, tetapi setelah Proteus meninggal, dia dipaksa untuk selalu menghindari kemajuan anak Proteus, Theoclymenus, yang menuntut agar dia menikah dengannya. Ketika Menelaus tiba di Mesir setelah sepuluh tahun berperang dan tujuh lagi mengembara, Helen akhirnya bertemu kembali dengan suaminya. Walaupun dihantui oleh Theoclymenus yang digeruni, kedua-duanya berjaya melarikan diri dengan pertolongan dengan bantuan saudara perempuan Theoclymenus, Theonoe dan pulang bersama.

Walaupun banyak kisah pelik ini adalah Euripides sendiri, beberapa unsur berlaku pada pengarang terdahulu. The Odyssey menerangkan beberapa pengembaraan Menelaus dan Helen selepas Perang Trojan serta jalan memutar mereka di Mesir untuk berunding dengan Proteus kenabian (4.351-592). Ini mungkin versi cerita Homeric yang digunakan oleh Aeschylus dalam drama satyrnya yang hilang Proteus, dilakukan bersama dengan Oresteia trilogi 468 SM. Tetapi mitos bahawa Helen tidak pernah pergi ke Troy dan bahawa perang diperjuangkan untuk hantu sepertinya berasal dari penyair Stesichorus abad ke-6 SM. Menurut Plato (428/427 - 348/347 SM), Stesichorus telah menulis sebuah puisi yang disebut Helen yang menggambarkan hubungan sulit Helen dengan Paris. Tidak lama selepas menyusun puisi ini, Stesichorus menjadi buta. Menyedari bahawa dia telah menyinggung perasaan Helen, Stesichorus segera menyusun puisi kedua - a Palinode (secara harfiah, "lagu terbalik") - di mana dia membaca semula yang pertama dan menjelaskan bahawa Helen tidak pernah berlayar ke Troy sama sekali (Phaedrus 243a-b). Baik Stesichorus ' Helen bukan juga miliknya Palinode bertahan, walaupun Plato memetik beberapa baris penting dari yang terakhir (Phaedrus 243a7-b1):

Kisah ini tidak benar: anda tidak menaiki kapal dengan bangku yang baik, anda tidak sampai ke menara Troy (terjemahan saya)

Nampaknya, di Stesichorus ' Palinode Helen tidak bersalah, tetap setia kepada suaminya Menelaus semasa perang diperjuangkan hantu (lihat juga Plato, Republik 586c). Kerana membetulkan kesalahannya Stesichorus - demikian ceritanya - segera mendapatkan kembali penglihatannya.

Akhirnya, sekitar 450 SM - satu generasi sebelum Euripides ' Helen perdana - sejarawan Herodotus (sekitar 484 - 425/417 SM) menerbitkan bukunya Sejarah, di mana memberikan versi mitos Helennya: Helen pernah lari ke Paris, tetapi ketika keduanya berhenti di Mesir, raja Proteus yang saleh mengakui kejahatan mereka dan menahan Helen bersamanya sehingga dia dapat dikembalikan kepada suaminya yang sah. Sementara itu, orang Yunani berlayar ke Troy untuk mendapatkan Helen kembali. Tidak mempercayai Trojan ketika mereka memberitahu mereka bahawa Helen tidak ada di sana, orang-orang Yunani memecat bandar itu hanya untuk mengetahui bahawa Trojan telah memberitahu mereka kebenaran. Akhirnya, perjalanan Menelaus membawanya ke Mesir di mana dia menemui isterinya dan membawanya kembali ke Sparta (113-19).

Euripides ' Helen mencampuradukkan dan memadankan pelbagai mitos versi ini. Tetapi beberapa perincian - anak Proteus, Theoclymenus, misalnya - hampir pasti penemuannya. Dan, seperti biasa, bagaimana Euripides menyebarkan sumbernya dan apa yang dilakukannya dengan mitos itu sepenuhnya dibentuk oleh kejeniusannya yang tidak dapat ditiru.

Watak

Drama ini diatur di Mesir sebelum istana. Mezbah di tengah-tengah orkestra (pentas) mungkin mewakili makam Proteus.

Watak, mengikut urutan penampilan, adalah:

  • Helen (isteri Menelaus)
  • Teucer (pahlawan Yunani, dari Salamis)
  • Chorus wanita Spartan yang ditawan
  • Menelaus (raja Sparta)
  • Wanita Tua (penjaga pintu istana)
  • Hamba (dari Menelaus)
  • Theonoe (nabi, anak perempuan Proteus, saudara perempuan Theoclymenus)
  • Theoclymenus (raja Mesir, anak Proteus, saudara lelaki Theonoe)
  • Utusan (hamba Theoclymenus)
  • Dioscuri (saudara Helen)

Petak

Prolog: Drama dimulakan dengan Helen, berdiri di hadapan makam raja Almarhum Proteus di Mesir. Helen memperkenalkan dirinya dan menyediakan latar belakang: 17 tahun sebelumnya, Paris telah menamakan Aphrodite sebagai dewi terindah dalam pertandingan (Penghakiman Paris) dan sebagai balasannya dijanjikan tangan Helen dalam perkahwinan; Paris berlayar ke Sparta, tetapi dewi Hera, yang marah karena kalah dengan Aphrodite, membuat hantu seperti Helen untuk memberikannya kepada Paris; Sementara itu, Helen yang sebenarnya dibawa ke Mesir oleh Hermes, di mana dia dilindungi oleh raja Proteus. Selama 17 tahun terakhir ini, Helen mengatakan, dia dengan tulus menjunjung tinggi kesuciannya, walaupun setelah Proteus meninggal dan dia terpaksa menangkis usaha perkahwinan anaknya, Theoclymenus. Walaupun dia tahu bahawa namanya telah dicemari oleh hantu yang menggantikannya, Helen bertekad untuk menegakkan kebajikannya dan berharap dapat memperbaiki reputasinya suatu hari nanti:

... walaupun nama saya dicerca di Yunani, badan saya tidak akan merasa malu di sini. (66-67, tr. Kovacs)

Ketika Helen menjelang akhir ucapannya, Teucer pahlawan Yunani masuk. Masih di bawah tanggapan bahawa hantu Helen itu nyata, dia bingung dan marah kerana mencari Helen lain di Mesir. Helen tidak mendedahkan identiti kepadanya tetapi bertanya kepadanya untuk berita mengenai orang Yunani dan Perang Trojan. Teucer mendedahkan bahawa ibu Helen Leda telah membunuh diri, saudara-saudaranya Castor dan Polydeuces telah hilang, dan suaminya Menelaus dianggap mati. Dia juga menjelaskan bahawa dia telah diasingkan dari tanah airnya, Salamis, dan meminta nasihat dari nabi Theonoe. Helen memberi amaran kepadanya bahawa dia harus segera pergi ketika raja baru Theoclymenus membunuh setiap orang Yunani yang dia temui. Teucer keluar.

Parodos: Chorus masuk. Mereka dan Helen meratapi bahawa walaupun Helen tidak bersalah, namanya terus dikutuk di kalangan orang Yunani.

Episod 1: Dalam pertukaran dengan korus, Helen menganggap tindakannya dan berjanji akan mati jika Menelaus benar-benar mati. Chorus mendesaknya untuk berjumpa dengan Theonoe terlebih dahulu. Semua jalan keluar untuk melakukannya.

Menelaus masuk, berpakaian kain buruk. Dia membanggakan bahawa dia adalah penakluk Troy, dan menjelaskan bahawa setelah tujuh tahun mengembara dia telah karam di Mesir. Hantu Helen - yang dia masih percaya sebagai Helen yang sebenar - telah disimpan di dalam gua bersama beberapa orang anak buahnya yang masih terselamat. Wanita Tua menahannya dalam adegan komik dan memberitahunya bahawa Helen dari Sparta berada di Mesir. Daun Menelaus keliru:

Apa yang perlu saya buat? Saya mendengar masalah baru pada tumit lama: Saya datang membawa isteri yang saya ambil dari Troy, dan dia ditahan di sebuah gua, namun ada wanita lain, dengan nama yang sama dengan isteri saya, yang tinggal di rumah ini. Dia mengatakan bahawa wanita itu adalah anak perempuan Zeus. Adakah terdapat seorang lelaki yang dipanggil Zeus di tebing Sungai Nil? Tidak, hanya ada satu, yang ada di syurga. Dan di mana ada Sparta kecuali di mana Eurotas mengalir melewati tebing buluh yang indah? Tyndareus adalah nama satu lelaki, bukan dua orang. Tanah lain apa yang disebut Lacedaemon dan Troy? Saya tak tahu nak buat apa. (483-99, tr. Kovacs)

Helen dan Chorus kembali, setelah berunding dengan Theonoe dan mengetahui kedatangan Menelaus yang akan tiba di Mesir. Helen pada mulanya melarikan diri dari Menelaus yang lusuh tetapi tidak lama kemudian mengenalinya dan mendedahkan dirinya. Menelaus, yang mempersoalkan hakikat realiti, enggan mempercayai bahawa dia adalah Helen yang sebenar sehingga Hambanya mengungkapkan bahawa hantu di gua itu baru saja melepaskan Helen dan menghilang ke udara yang tipis. Helen dan Menelaus bersatu kembali, dan Menelaus menyatakan bahawa Perang Trojan diperjuangkan untuk khayalan. Tetapi Menelaus tidak mempunyai kapal, dan pasangan itu menyedari bahawa mereka tidak akan dapat meninggalkan Mesir tanpa bantuan Theonoe: Theoclymenus masih mahu menikahi Helen dan akan membunuh Menelaus jika dia mengetahui siapa dia.

Theonoe memasuki; Helen dan Menelaus meminta sokongannya. Theonoe berjanji untuk tidak mendedahkan identiti Menelaus kepada abangnya dan tidak berdiam diri mengenai percubaan mereka untuk melarikan diri. Setelah dia pergi, Helen membuat rancangan pelarian: pengebumian laut palsu untuk Menelaus yang "mati".

Stasimon 1: Chorus meratapi mereka yang meninggal dalam Perang Trojan. Mereka mempersoalkan sifat dewa dan alasan perang.

Episod 2: Theoclymenus masuk. Helen memperkenalkan Menelaus tetapi berbohong mengenai identitinya, memperkenalkannya sebagai orang Yunani yang karam yang melihat suaminya mati di laut. Helen berjanji bahawa dia akan mengahwini Theoclymenus jika dia mengizinkannya mengadakan upacara pengebumian laut untuk Menelaus. Theoclymenus mengabulkan permintaan Helen.

Stasimon 2: Chorus menyanyikan mitos Demeter, yang kehilangan anak perempuannya Persephone dan mencarinya. Mereka mendakwa, anehnya, bahawa Helen pernah menyinggung perasaan Demeter.

Episod 3: Helen dan Menelaus (sekarang berpakaian perisai baru secara pahlawan) selesai merundingkan persiapan untuk pengebumian laut dengan Theoclymenus. Helen menjelaskan bahawa dia mesti pergi bersama yang lain dan Menelaus mesti menjadi ketua kapal. Theoclymenus mengakui; Helen dan Menelaus berangkat setelah Menelaus berdoa kepada Zeus untuk berjaya dalam usaha mereka.

Stasimon 3: Chorus membayangkan kepulangan Helen ke Sparta.

Episod 4: Seorang Rasul bergegas ke istana dan memberitahu Theoclymenus bahawa Helen dan Menelaus telah menipunya; mereka telah membunuh pelaut Mesir, mengambil alih kapal, dan mereka dalam perjalanan ke Sparta. Theoclymenus sangat marah dan hampir membunuh adiknya Theonoe kerana tidak memberi amaran kepadanya tentang pengkhianatan itu; Chorus cuba menghalangnya. Dioscuri muncul sebagai dei ex machina dan mendedahkan bahawa semua yang berlaku adalah sebahagian daripada rancangan Zeus. Helen akan menjadi dewa seperti mereka, dan Menelaus akan pergi ke Kepulauan Diberkati ketika dia mati. Theoclymenus bersetuju untuk menerima hasil ini.

Analisis

Salah satu tema main yang paling penting adalah perbezaan antara realiti dan ilusi. Premis tragedi tersebut adalah bahawa Perang Trojan diperjuangkan untuk hantu Helen sementara Helen yang sebenarnya berada di Mesir. Secara ketara, realiti dan ilusi dalam hal ini tidak dapat dibezakan: semua orang berpendapat bahawa hantu Helen adalah Helen yang sebenarnya, termasuk suami Helen, Menelaus (sehingga, hantu itu lenyap). Helen sering bergelut dengan konflik antara dirinya yang tidak bersalah dan rasa bersalah yang tersirat dengan namanya:

Dan untuk memerangi Trojan, saya diajukan untuk orang Yunani sebagai hadiah perang (walaupun itu bukan saya tetapi hanya nama saya) (42-43, tr. Kovacs)

Euripides ' Helen juga mencerminkan moral dan alasan perang. Ini adalah isu kontemporari yang penting: ketika tragedi itu muncul sekitar tahun 412 SM, orang-orang Athena dan Spartan telah berperang selama hampir dua dekad (Perang Peloponnesia). Pada tahun 413 SM, orang Athena mengalami kemunduran besar setelah kekuatan besar yang mereka hantar ke Syracuse sebagai sebahagian daripada Ekspedisi Sisilia telah dihapuskan hampir kepada orang terakhir. Ramai orang Athena menonton Euripides ' Helen akan bersimpati dengan Menelaus, yang mengingati anak buahnya yang mati dalam perang dan di laut:

Kita boleh memanggil orang-orang yang mati dan mereka yang terlepas dari bahaya laut dan tiba di rumah dengan selamat dengan nama-nama rakan mereka yang mati. (397-99, tr. Kovacs)

Yang menarik juga ialah gambaran Menelaus dan kewarganegaraan Spartan. Menelaus memperbodohkan dirinya sendiri ketika dia berusaha tidak berhasil melewati Wanita Tua untuk memasuki istana, dia sangat kurang ajar ketika memahami bagaimana Helen yang sebenarnya telah diganti dengan hantu, dan dia akan sama sekali tidak berdaya terhadap Theoclymenus jika tidak kerana Helen. Pencirian ini nampaknya mencerminkan stereotaip Athena yang menafsirkan orang Spartan sebagai bumiputera yang sombong dan tidak cerdas. Sebenarnya, Menelaus muncul dalam beberapa drama Euripides (Sakit Androm, Wanita Trojan, dan lain-lain), dan dia digambarkan sama bodoh dalam semua itu. Helen yang licik, di sisi lain, telah disamakan oleh beberapa orang dengan jeneral Athena dan negarawan Alcibiades. Oleh itu, adalah mungkin untuk membaca Euripides ' Helen sebagai karya yang sangat topikal, yang menggambarkan realiti suram perang Yunani pada akhir abad ke-5 SM.

Menghancurkan semua ini, ada juga saat-saat lega komik, seperti pemandangan di mana Menelaus dipalingkan dari istana oleh Wanita Tua. Tragedi ini juga berakhir dengan "bahagia", dengan Helen dan Menelaus berlayar ke Sparta bersama. Ini mungkin kelihatan mengejutkan bagi banyak pembaca moden, dan memang, kebanyakan tragedi kuno yang terkenal (Aeschylus ' Agamemnon, Sophocles ' Oedipus Raja dan Antigone, Euripides ' Medea) jangan berakhir dengan catatan gembira. Tetapi keliru mempercayai bahawa semua tragedi Athena adalah masalah yang menyedihkan dan menyedihkan. Sebenarnya, idea bahawa tragedi mesti menyedihkan adalah idea yang berkembang secara beransur-ansur, melalui pengaruh penulis drama berabad-abad (seperti Seneca dan Shakespeare) dan pengkritik sastera (seperti Aristoteles). Di Yunani klasik, tragedi boleh membahagiakan atau melucukan, dan ini tidak menjadikannya tidak begitu tragis, dan ini pasti tidak menjadikannya komedi atau percintaan.


Helen (Main) - Sejarah

Ulasan: Beberapa komen telah dihantar mengenai Helen.

Diterjemahkan oleh E. P. Coleridge

HELEN, isteri MENELAUS
TEUCER, seorang pejuang Yunani, yang bertempur di Troy
KORUS WANITA GREEK KAPTIF, menghadiri HELEN
MENELAUS, Raja Sparta
PORTRESS THEOCLYMENUS
PENGESAH PERTAMA
PENGESAH KEDUA
THEONOE, saudari THEOCLYMENUS
THEOCLYMENUS, Raja Mesir
BERKHIDMAT THEOCLYMENUS
DIOSCURI

Sebelum istana THEOCLYMENUS di Mesir. Ia dekat muara Sungai Nil. Makam Proteus, bapa THEOCLYMENUS kelihatan. HELEN ditemui sendiri sebelum kubur.

Engkau biarkan aku memanggil, Philomel yang menangis, bersembunyi di sebalik rahsia berdaun di tempatmu, yang paling sesuai dengan semua penyanyi berbulu, oh! datang untuk menolong saya dalam keadaan kecewa, menerobos kerongkong kecil anda, ketika saya menyanyikan kesengsaraan Helen yang memilukan, dan nasib air mata Trojan yang meneteskan tunduk pada tombak Achaea, pada hari datang ke dataran mereka orang yang melonjak dengan orang asing dayung melintasi anak panah yang memalukan, membawa perlumbaan Priam dari Lacedaemon engkau pengantinnya yang malang, Helen, bahkan Paris, pengantin lelaki yang tidak bernasib baik, dengan bimbingan Aphrodite.

Dan banyak orang Achaean menghembuskan nafasnya yang terakhir di tengah-tengah dorongan tombak dan hujan batu, dan sampai ke kesedihannya kerana isteri-isteri mereka memotong rambut mereka dalam kesedihan, dan rumah-rumah mereka dibiarkan tanpa pengantin perempuan dan salah seorang Achaea, bahawa hanya memiliki satu kapal, menyalakan suar yang menyala-nyala di gubuk laut Euboea, dan menghancurkan banyak dari mereka, menghancurkan mereka


"Ramona": Sejarah Klasik

Setiap abad atau lebih, sebuah kisah akan muncul yang membawa begitu banyak kepentingan sosial dan emosi sehingga menjadi klasik pertama, dan kemudian ... ikonik. Kisah tragis Ramona dan kekasihnya Alessandro adalah kisah seperti itu. Seperti Romeo dan Juliet, Wuthering Heights, dan juga dongeng yang lebih moden seperti The Great Gatsby, "Ramona" telah menanamkan dirinya dalam kesadaran budaya kita dengan cara yang sangat unik. Ketika novel Helen Hunt Jackson "Ramona" pertama kali diterbitkan pada tahun 1884, novel itu dilemparkan terhadap pemikiran masyarakat seperti gelombang lautan melawan kapal perahu. Graviti mesejnya tidak dapat diabaikan. Ia menjadi best seller segera, dan, kerana "Uncle Tom's Cabin" mempunyai generasi sebelumnya, tidak hanya mengubah cara orang melihat dunia di luar zon selesa mereka sendiri, tetapi juga memberi warga biasa melihat budaya yang sebelumnya mereka miliki mendengar khabar angin mengenai. Dianyam dalam kisah cinta "Ramona" adalah sekilas sejarah tragis penduduk asli California Selatan. Lebih daripada sekadar kisah cinta, ini adalah kisah siapa mesejnya sama pentingnya hari ini seperti ketika novel pertama kali muncul di pentas umum.

Lihat lebih banyak gambar bersejarah & # 8220Ramona & # 8221 dari Koleksi Perpustakaan Awam Hemet Helen Hunt Jackson adalah salah seorang penulis wanita paling popular pada zamannya. Walaupun sepanjang hayatnya dia telah menjauhkan diri dari masalah politik dan sosial yang berat pada akhir abad kesembilan puluh, pada tahun 1879 Jackson tiba-tiba muncul, dalam sekejap kesadaran sipil, sebagai salah satu penyokong utama hak-hak India. Dia meminta perubahan dalam kebijakan pemerintah India, dan mendokumentasikan tindakannya yang terang-terangan dalam sebuah buku tahun 1881 yang berjudul "A Century of Dishonor". Jackson menggambarkan secara terperinci perjanjian-perjanjian yang patah, pembunuhan kejam, dan kebijakan pemerintah yang menipu yang telah menjadi kebiasaan bagi penduduk Asli Amerika. Terpaksa menerima tempahan, penyakit dan kematian tidak lama lagi merugikan mereka. Orang India Amerika menuju kepupusan. PBB hari ini tidak akan mempunyai masalah untuk memanggil amalan institusi ini sebagai "Genosidal". Miss Jackson menulis tentang rasa simpati yang mendalam kepada orang-orang asli: "Kadang-kadang saya tertanya-tanya bahawa Tuhan tidak menghujani api dan belerang di negeri ini, untuk menghukum kita atas kekejaman terhadap orang-orang India yang malang ini."

Sayangnya, walaupun karya bukan fiksyennya mungkin memiliki minat yang tinggi di belakangnya, itu bukan kejayaan sastera yang hebat, dan tidak banyak mengubah pandangan stereotaip mengenai orang India dan cara hidup mereka dalam pemikiran masyarakat Amerika. Dia memerlukan pendekatan yang lebih segar. Dia memutuskan tidak cukup sekadar memberitahu, dia harus berhibur. Oleh itu, kisah "Ramona" dilahirkan. Dan idea bahawa lebih banyak hati dapat dimenangi dengan emosi yang murni daripada dengan maklumat terperinci yang terbukti betul. Dan kejayaan novel itu tidak hanya mengubah cara orang memandang isu hak India di Amerika, tetapi mencipta visi romantis California yang masih hidup hingga kini. Buku ini tidak pernah habis. Dan banyak filem dan versi televisyen telah dibuat selama bertahun-tahun, tetapi adalah "Ramona" yang dialami oleh setiap orang di sini setiap musim bunga, dengan latar belakang bukit yang indah dan langit biru kehijauan, yang benar-benar merasakan kehadiran dan semangat ceritanya. Anda hanya perlu datang ke drama ini, permainan Terbuka Rasmi California, ketika menuju musim ke-100 berturut-turut, untuk menghargai apa sebenarnya keajaiban "Ramona", sebagai cerita, dan sebagai perlawanan ikonik dalam sejarah California.

Foto diambil di hadapan Mission Inn, Riverside


Helen adalah anak perempuan tertua William dan Myrtle Simmons. Semasa dia di sekolah menengah, dia jatuh cinta dengan Charles dan mereka berkahwin langsung dari sekolah menengah. Charles ingin menjalani "Impian Amerika" dan menjadi pengacara yang berjaya sementara Helen menyokongnya sebagai isteri memasak dan membersihkan. Helen menangani tekanan dari Charles sepanjang tahun mereka berkahwin. Sakit hati ini termasuk memindahkan ibunya ke rumah, dan tekanan umum yang menyebabkan dua keguguran dengan anak mereka. Helen, yang dibesarkan sebagai orang Kristian yang taat, menyokong suaminya dan mencintainya tanpa syarat, tetapi dia melihat tingkah lakunya terhadapnya berubah dengan setiap sen yang dia buat di firma guaman. Dia menulis dalam buku hariannya tentang kekecewaannya dan menanamkan kemarahan kepadanya.

Helen berkahwin dengan Charles McCarter selama 18 tahun. Selama ini, Charles secara lisan dan fizikal kasar kepada Helen secara tertutup, mengenakan khayalan perkahwinan yang sempurna di balik pintu tertutup. Charles meletakkan ibu Helen, Myrtle sebagai jururawat. Alasannya adalah bahawa dia tidak terpisah dari "Impian Amerika." Dalam versi filem dan main, terungkap bahawa dia berselingkuh dengannya dengan seorang wanita bernama Brenda Johnson. Dalam versi filem, ayah Charles Daddy Charles dan mendiang Pauline tidak dilihat atau disebutkan, tetapi hadir dalam drama.

Charles membayar seorang lelaki trak penghantaran, Orlando untuk membawa barang-barangnya dan dia ke tempat lain. Dengan marah, dia menendang Orlando dari trak dan memandu ke rumah Madea tempat dia tinggal. Madea kemudiannya mengadakan masakan menjemput keluarganya dan semua orang di kawasan kejiranan. Ketika itulah dia melihat Orlando lagi. Melihat bahawa sepupunya, Brian mengundangnya. Di mana kedua-duanya pada mulanya bertengkar, Helen membuat isyarat pemaaf yang mendorong mereka untuk memperkenalkan diri secara rasmi. Orlando perlahan-lahan menjadi tertarik padanya ketika berada di tempat memasak Madea.

Ketika minggu-minggu berlanjutan, dia melihat Helen bekerja di kedai makan dengan potongan rambut baru pada bulan April. Dia memesan "Nombor 4" dan dia berkata "Kami tidak memiliki" nombor 4 "di restoran ini. Dia hanya meminta kopi sebagai ganti makanan. Sebelum dia pergi, dia membuat pelengkap mengenai potongan rambut barunya dengan mengatakan, "Saya suka potongan rambut baru, banyak." Dia berkata dengan hati-hati mengucapkan terima kasih sebelum hampir tersandung sesuatu yang cuba cepat pergi. Dia terus meraba-raba rambutnya ketika dia berjalan pergi dengan berhati-hati dalam pujiannya. Ini membuatnya tergelak sebagai dia tahu bangunan saling tarikan antara mereka.

Pada malam hujan pada bulan Mei ketika Helen menutup kedai makan, Orlando datang menjemputnya kerana dia menunggu di luar telah dihantar oleh Brian. Dia akhirnya bersetuju setelah menolak awalnya dan kedua-duanya menuju ke chaundra. Dia menjadi lebih berhati-hati dan kuat sejak kejadian dengan Charles ketika dia bertanya kepadanya tentang dirinya dan apa niatnya membawanya keluar untuk makan malam. Dia akhirnya mereda kerana jawapannya kelihatan sah. Dia memintanya untuk menari yang awalnya dia tolak, tetapi akhirnya menerimanya. Dia secara beransur-ansur menjadi tertarik, tetapi tetap berjaga-jaga kerana apa yang terjadi dengan pertengkaran mereka sebelumnya dan peristiwa dengan bekas suaminya Charles.

Keintiman Helen dan Orlando

Selama beberapa minggu, dia dan Orlando mula menghabiskan banyak masa bersama. Mereka menempuh pelbagai tarikh yang berbeza kerana dapat dilihat berjalan bersama, bersantai di kolam, bahkan bertengkar dengan bantal dan kemudian berkongsi ciuman bersama. Suatu malam pada tarikh tertentu pada bulan Ogos, Orlando mengaku bahawa dia mencintai Helen ketika mereka makan malam. Pada malam itu, dia bertanya kepada Helen jika dia merasakan hal yang sama. Masih berhati-hati untuk menegaskan perasaannya, dia meyakinkannya bahawa dia tidak akan menyalahgunakan perasaannya, tetapi dia harus mendengarnya. Dia menegaskan bahawa dia juga mencintainya. Keesokan paginya, Helen bangun untuk mandi dan melihat cincin di tangannya. Semasa dia berpusing, dia mendapati Orlando berdiri di sana dan dia melamarnya. Helen yang berdiri di sana tidak percaya dan sangat emosional terhadap lamarannya terganggu oleh apa yang dilihat pada berita di belakangnya di televisyen.

Helen dan Brian bersama Brenda mendengar keadaan Charles. Ketika doktor bertanya siapa isterinya, Brenda dengan cepat menjawab, "Saya akan segera." Marah Helen. Doktor bertanya kepada Brenda apakah mereka harus mencuba menghidupkan semula Charles yang dia katakan tidak. Helen cepat-cepat memintas dan isterinya masih sah, Dia menyuruh doktor untuk melakukan apa yang dia mampu untuk Charles. Helen dan Brenda berdebat yang secara tiba-tiba Brenda tinggalkan setelah Helen menjerit kepadanya.

Helen terus memukul Charles

Dia membawa Charles pulang dan apabila dia dapat bercakap, dia terus kasar dengan Helen yang melawannya. Pembenarannya berlaku dalam bentuk kebenaran fizikal dan kejam yang dia tidak pernah mendengarnya menegaskan, bahkan semasa perkahwinan mereka. Charles mula menyedari betapa menyakitkannya dia, dan mulai mengucapkan kata-kata: "Maafkan aku". Helen membawanya ke gereja suatu hari dan dia diselamatkan.

Namun, dia mempunyai perasaan terhadap Orlando, dan dia terluka. Pada makan malam keluarga dengan Madea, dia memberitahu Charles bahawa dia akan selalu mencintainya dan mereka akan selalu berteman, tetapi dia jatuh cinta dengan Orlando. Dia memberinya surat cerai dan cincin, mencium dahinya dan pergi mencari Orlando.

Dia mendapati Orlando, nampaknya masih terluka kerana pemergiannya yang tidak dijangka, dan mengatakan bahawa dia hanya menginginkannya. Dia ingin memastikan dan bertanya, "Bagaimana anda tahu itu, Helen?" Dia mengulangi hal yang sama yang pernah dia katakan padanya ketika dia mengaku cintanya padanya dengan air mata di matanya, "Aku membawa kamu dalam semangatku, aku lebih banyak mendoakanmu daripada aku berdoa untuk diriku sendiri, dan jika kamu jauh lebih dari satu jam saya tidak boleh berhenti memikirkan anda, senyuman anda, ketika anda tersenyum dunia saya baik-baik saja. " Dia melamar lagi dan dia menerima seperti yang dia mahukan pada mulanya. Mereka berpelukan dan mencium kemudian dia menjemputnya dan berteriak kepada rakan-rakannya, "Wanita ini di sini ingin menikahi saya, ya! Dia ingin menikahi saya!" Rakan-rakan sekerja semua bertepuk tangan dan bersorak ketika dia berjalan dengan Helen dalam pelukannya.


Bandar Helen Mempunyai Rasa Bandar Kecil yang Sempurna

Semasa anda mengunjungi Alpine Helen, anda akan merasa seolah-olah anda telah mengundurkan masa. Kawasan pelik ini digayakan oleh sebuah perkampungan Alpine Jerman lama. Lorong-lorong batu dan menara berliku akan membuat anda merasa seolah-olah anda telah meninggalkan negeri ini. Di sini, anda juga akan menikmati pelbagai perbelanjaan, makan, dan hiburan.

Kawasan yang menarik ini meraikan sesuatu sepanjang tahun. Terdapat perayaan 4 Julai, Malam Musim Panas Bavaria, Winefest, dan perlumbaan belon udara panas tahunan yang menarik untuk seisi keluarga. Untuk keajaiban musim sejuk, pastikan untuk melihat Alpenfest yang memulakan setiap Hari Kesyukuran dan berlangsung pada bulan Disember.

Gambar ihsan dari Shutterstock

Pesta Alpine Helen yang paling popular, pasti, adalah Oktoberfestnya. Sebenarnya, Oktoberfest di Helen adalah yang terpanjang di negara ini, berlangsung selama hampir enam minggu dari pertengahan September hingga akhir Oktober. Ini bir Jerman, brats, minum, lagu, polkas, dan semua pilihan yang anda boleh minta! Siapa kata bandar kecil pasti suram?

Untuk percutian bandar kecil yang sempurna yang menawarkan anda dan seluruh kumpulan sesuatu yang menyeronokkan, percutian kabin di Helen adalah perkara yang anda perlukan. Di sini, anda akan mendapat gabungan keseronokan dan kelonggaran yang sempurna. Perlahan sebentar dan nikmati percutian yang benar-benar menjauhkan anda dari semuanya.


Gambar ihsan Unsplash


Sejarah Ringkas Helen of Troy

Tajuk ini memberikan sedikit tentang komedi hitam Amerika kontemporari ini. Hanya dalam pengertian paling longgar, Helen of Troy hadir dalam kisah Charlotte yang tidak bahagia dan remaja.

Lakonan dalam empat aksi ini dipengaruhi oleh wajah yang melancarkan seribu kapal sejauh mana Charlotte diberi tugas sekolah mengenai perkara itu dan kehidupannya - atau lebih tepatnya arwah ibunya - mempunyai persamaan dengan permainan orang Yunani.

Charlotte adalah anak itik jelek berusia lima belas tahun yang mana ibunya yang cantik dan indah, yang disebut Helen, baru saja meninggal. Dalam satu siri adegan pendek, dia mengadakan pertemuan satu persatu dengan keluarga, rakan dan kenalan yang bersempadan dengan surealis tetapi melukis gambar seorang gadis pemalu yang hidup dan mati.

Ayahnya diperankan oleh John Sharian, hampir monoselab sehingga kata-kata seperti OK kelihatan seperti mulut. Dia menjaga anak perempuannya tetapi berjuang untuk memahami atau berkomunikasi dengannya. Dia tidak sendirian, karena penonton harus membuat keputusan secara sadar tentang apakah beberapa adegan sedang terjadi di kepalanya atau hidupnya.

Her best (and only) friend Heather, wittily portrayed by Jaimi Barbakoff, is so totally an airhead valley girl who uses her friend like an ego-boosting doll. Even worse, insecure Franklin (Ryan Sampson) is a geeky boy who has learned to ignore Charlotte, and Freddie (Christian Brassington) is a wet dream of a quarterback who loves himself to distraction.

The funniest moments in a very funny play come in scenes involving Gary the careers teacher. In two scenes, the tables are reversed. First, Charlotte goes hilariously overboard on her sole career choice of porn star while Gary gulps and dissembles. Next time around, she announces that she wants to be a nun while he tells her that she should be a porn star and that, anyway, there is little difference between the two.

Charlotte is a mixed-up girl who longs to trade teen acne for her mother's peerless beauty. In true 21st Century style, she tries to buy the admiration that the beautiful get genuinely. Her method is a combination of loud attention-seeking and no commitment sex.

The play achieves no real resolution, although eventually father and daughter begin to communicate properly. It is held together by an excellent performance from very promising RADA graduate Andrea Riseborough who is making her professional stage debut.

Under Gordon Anderson's direction, she allows the strange teen to become surprisingly sympathetic and assists in making this lively play show what life is like for an ugly, unhappy teenager today.


Keller, Helen — Story of My Life: Part 6

“In the story of my life here presented to the readers of The Ladies’ Home Journal, I have tried to show that afflictions may be looked at in such a way that they become privileges.”

by Helen Keller, Cambridge, 1902

I TRUST that the readers of THE LADIES’ HOME JOURNAL have not concluded from the chapter on books in the preceding number of the magazine that reading is my only pleasure for my pleasures and amusements are as varied as my moods.

More than once in the course of my story I have referred to my love of the country and out-of-door sports. When I was quite a little girl I learned to row and swim, and during the summer, when I am at Wrentham, Massachusetts, I almost live in my boat. Nothing gives me greater pleasure than to take my friends out rowing when they visit me. Of course, I cannot guide the boat very well. Some one usually sits in the stern and manages the rudder while I row. Sometimes, however, I venture out without the rudder. It is such fun to try to steer by the scent of watergrasses and lilies, and of bushes that grow on the shore. I use oars with leather bands, which keep them in position in the oar-locks, and know by the resistance of the water when the oars are evenly poised. In the same manner I can also tell when I am pulling against the current. I like to contend with wind and wave. What is more exhilarating than to make your staunch little boat, obedient to your will and muscle, go skimming lightly over glistening, tilting waves, and to feel the steady, imperious surge of the water!

I ALSO enjoy canoeing, and I suppose you I will smile when I say that I especially like it on moonlight nights. I cannot, it is true, see the moon climb up the sky behind the pines and steal softly across the heavens, making a shining path for us to follow but I know she is there, and as I lie back among the pillows and put my hand in the water I fancy that I feel the shimmer of her garments as she passes. Sometimes a daring little fish slips between my fingers, and often a pond-lily presses shyly against my hand. Frequently as we emerge from the shelter of a cove or inlet I am suddenly conscious of the spaciousness of the air about me. A luminous warmth seems to infold me. Whether it comes from the trees which have been heated by the sun, or from the water, I can never discover. I have had the same strange sensation even in the heart of the city. I have felt it on cold, stormy days and at night. It is like the kiss of warm lips on my face.

My favorite amusement, I think, is sailing. Last summer I visited Nova Scotia and had opportunities such as I had not enjoyed before to make the acquaintance of the ocean. After spending a few days in Evangeline’s country, about which Longfellow’s beautiful poem has woven a spell of enchantment, Miss Sullivan and I went to Halifax, where we remained the greater part of the summer. The harbor was our joy, our paradise. What glorious sails we had to Bedford Basin, to McNabb’s Island, to York Redoubt and to the North-West Arm! And at night what soothing, wondrous hours we spent in the shadow of the great, silent men-of-war. Oh, it was all so interesting, so beautiful ! The memory of it is a joy forever.

One day we had a thrilling experience. There was a “regatta” in the North-West Arm, in which the boats from the different warships were engaged. We went in a sailboat along with many others to watch the races.

Hundreds of little sailboats swung to and fro close by, and the sea was calm. When the races were over, and we turned our faces homeward, one of the party noticed a black cloud drifting in from the sea, which grew and spread and thickened until it covered the whole sky. The wind rose, and the waves chopped angrily at unseen barriers. Our little boat confronted the gale fearlessly with sails spread and ropes taut, she seemed to sit upon the wind! Now she swirled in the billows, now she sprang upward on a gigantic wave, only to be driven down with angry howl and hiss. Down came the mainsail. Tacking and jibbing, we wrestled with opposing winds that drove us from side to side with impetuous fury. Our hearts beat fast, and our hands trembled with excitement not fear for we had the hearts of vikings, and we knew that our skipper was master of the situation. He had steered through many a storm with firm hand and steady eye. At last, cold, hungry and weary, we reached our pier amid the shouts and salutes from the large craft and the gunboats in the harbor. All the seamen in the harbor were applauding the master of the only little sailboat that ventured out into the storm.

I AM writing this chapter of my story in one of the loveliest nooks of one of the most charming villages in New England. Moreover, Wrentham is associated with nearly all of my joys and sorrows. For many years Red Farm, by King Philip’s Pond, the home of Mr. J. E. Chamberlin and his family, was my home. I remember with deepest gratitude the kindness of these dear friends and the happy days I spent with them. The sweet companionship of their children meant much to me. I joined in all their sports and rambles through the woods and frolics in the water. The quaint prattle of the little ones and their pleasure in the stories I told them of elf and gnome, of hero and wily bear, are pleasant things to remember. Mr. Chamberlin initiated me into the mysteries of tree and wildflower, until with the little ear of love I heard the flow of sap in the oak and saw the sun glint from leaf to leaf.

I have many tree-friends in Wrentham. One of them, a splendid oak, is the special pride of my heart. I take all my other friends to see this king-tree. It stands on a bluff overlooking King Philip’s Pond, and those who are wise in tree lore say it must have stood there eight hundred or a thousand years. There is a tradition that under this tree King Philip, the heroic Indian chief, gazed his last on earth and sky.

I had another tree-friend, gentle and more approachable than the great oak — a linden that grew in the dooryard at Red Farm. One afternoon, during a terrible thunderstorm, I felt a tremendous crash against the side of the house and knew, even before they told me, that the linden had fallen. We went out to see the hero that had withstood so many tempests, and it wrung my heart to see him prostrate who had mightily striven and was now mightily fallen.

But I must not forget that I was going to write about this summer in particular. As soon as my examinations were over Miss Sullivan and I hastened to this green nook, where we have a little cottage on one of the three lakes for which Wrentham is famous. Here the long, sunny days have been mine, with all thought of work and college and the noisy city thrust into the background. In Wrentham we catch echoes of what is happening in the world. Now and then we have heard of the cruel fighting in the far-away Pacific, and have learned of the struggles going on between capital and labor. We know that beyond the border of our Eden men are making history by the sweat of their brows when they might better make a holiday. But we little heed these things. Here are lakes and woods, and broad daisy-starred fields and sweet-breathed meadows, and they shall endure forever.

People who think that all sensations reach us through the eye and the ear have expressed surprise that I should notice any difference, except possibly the absence of pavements, between walking in city streets and in country roads. They forget that my whole body is alive to the conditions about me. The rumble and roar of the city smites the nerves of my face, and I feel the ceaseless tramp of an unseen multitude, and the dissonant tumult frets my spirit. The grinding of heavy wagons on hard pavements and the monotonous clangor of machinery are all the more torturing to the nerves if one’s attention is not diverted by the panorama that is always present in the noisy streets to people who can see.

Some of the Joys of Country Life

HERE in the country one sees only Nature’s fair works, and one’s soul is not saddened by the cruel struggle for mere existence that goes on in the crowded city. Several times I have visited the narrow, dirty streets where the poor live, and I grow hot and indignant to think that good people should be content to live in fine houses and become strong and beautiful, while others are condemned to live in hideous, sunless tenements and grow ugly, withered and cringing. The children who crowd these grimy alleys, half clad and underfed, shrink away from your outstretched hand as if from a blow. Dear little creatures, they crouch in my heart and haunt me with a constant sense of pain! There are men and women, too, all gnarled and bent out of shape. I have felt their hard, rough hands and realized what an endless struggle their existence must be — no more than a series of scrimmages, thwarted attempts to do something. Their life seems an immense disparity between effort and opportunity. The sun and the air are God’s free gifts to all, we say but are they so? In yonder city’s dingy alleys the sun shines not, and the air is foul. Oh, man, how dost thou forget and obstruct thy brother man, and say, “Give us this day our daily bread,” when he has none! Oh, would that men would leave the city, its splendor and its tumult and its gold, and return to wood and field and simple, honest living! Then would their children grow stately as these noble trees, and their thoughts sweet and pure as these wayside flowers.

What a joy it is to feel the soft, springy earth under my feet once more, to follow grassy roads that lead to ferny brooks where I can bathe my fingers in a cataract of rippling notes, or to clamber over a stone wall into shambling green fields that tumble and roll and climb in riotous gladness!

Next to a leisurely walk I enjoy a “spin” on my tandem bicycle. It is splendid to feel the wind blowing in my face and the springy motion of my iron steed. The rapid rush through the air gives me a delicious sense of strength and buoyancy, and the exercise makes my pulses dance and my heart sing for gladness.

Whenever it is possible my dog accompanies me on a walk or ride or sail. I have had many dog friends — huge, tawny mastiffs, soft-eyed spaniels, wood-wise setters and honest, homely bull terriers. At present the lord of my affections is one of these bull terriers. He has a long pedigree, a crooked tail and the drollest “phiz” in dogdom. My dog friends seem to understand my limitations perfectly and always keep close beside me when I am alone. I love their affectionate ways and the eloquent wag of their tails.

No Lack of Amusements on Rainy Days

WHEN a rainy day keeps me indoors I amuse myself after the manner of other girls. I like to knit and crochet I read in the happy-go-lucky way I love, here and there a line or perhaps I play a game or two of checkers or chess with a friend. I have a special board on which I play these games. The squares are cut out, so that the men stand in them firmly. The black checkers are flat and the white ones curved at the top. Each checker has a hole in the middle in which a brass knob can be placed to distinguish the king from the commons. The chessmen are of two sizes, the white being larger than the black, so that I have no trouble in following my opponent’s manoeuvres by moving my hands lightly over the board after a play. The jar made by shifting the men from one hole to another tells me when it is my turn.

Frequently when I happen to be all alone and in an idle mood I play a game of solitaire, of which I am very fond. I use playing-cards marked in the upper right-hand corner with braille symbols which indicate the value of the card. If there are children around, nothing pleases me so much as to frolic with them. I find even the smallest child excellent company, and I am glad to say that children usually like me. They lead me about and show me the things they are interested in. Of course the little ones cannot spell on their fingers but I manage to read their lips. If I do not succeed, they resort to dumb show. Sometimes I make a mistake and do the wrong thing. Then a burst of childish laughter greets my blunder, and the pantomime begins all over again. I often tell them stories or teach them a game, and the winged hours depart and leave us good and happy.

Museums and art-stores are also sources of pleasure and inspiration. Doubtless it will seem strange to many, that the hand unaided by sight can feel in the cold marble action, sentiment, beauty and yet it is true that I derive genuine pleasure from touching great works of art. As my finger-tips trace line and curve they discover the thought or emotion which the artist has portrayed. I can feel in the faces of gods and heroes hate, courage and love, just as I can detect these sentiments in living faces I am permitted to touch. I feel in Diana’s posture the grace and freedom of the forest and the spirit that tames the mountain lion and subdues the fiercest passions. My soul delights in the repose and gracious curves of the Venus and in Barré’s bronzes the secrets of the jungle are revealed to me.

A medallion of Homer hangs on the wall of my little study, conveniently low, so that I can easily reach it and touch the beautiful, sad face with loving reverence. How well I know each line in that majestic brow — tracks of life — and bitter evidences of struggle and sorrow those sightless eyes seeking, even in the cold plaster, for the light and the blue skies of his beloved Hellas, but seeking in vain that beautiful mouth, firm and true, and tender. It is the face of a poet, and of a man acquainted with sorrow. Ah, how well I understand his deprivation — the perpetual night in which he dwelt.

“O dark, dark, dark amid the blaze of noon,
Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse
Without all hope of day!”

In imagination I can hear Homer singing, as with unsteady, hesitating steps he gropes his way from camp to camp — singing of life, of love, of war, of the splendid achievements of a noble race. It was a wonderful, glorious song, and it won the blind poet an immortal crown, the admiration of all ages.

I sometimes wonder if the hand is not more sensitive to the beauties of sculpture than the eye. I should think the wonderful rhythmical flow of lines and curves could be more subtly felt than seen. Be this as it may, I know that I can feel the heart-throbs of the ancient Greeks in their marble gods and goddesses.

A Good Play is a Real Treat

ANOTHER pleasure, which comes more rarely than the others, is going to the theatre. I enjoy having a play described to me while it is being acted on the stage far more than reading it, because then it seems as if I were living in the midst of stirring events. It has been my privilege to meet a few great actors and actresses who have the power of so bewitching you that you forget time and place and live again in the romantic past. I have been permitted to touch the face and costume of Miss Ellen Terry as she impersonated our ideal of a queen and there was about her that divinity that hedges sublimest woe. Beside her stood Sir Henry Irving, wearing the symbols of kingship and there was majesty of intellect in his every gesture and attitude and the royalty that subdues and overcomes in every line of his sensitive face. In the king’s face which he wore as a mask there was a remoteness of grief which I shall never forget.

I also know Mr. Jefferson. I am proud to count him among my friends and go to see him whenever I happen to be where he is acting. The first time I saw him act was while at school in New York. He played “Rip Van Winkle.” I had often read the story before, but I had never felt the charm of Rip’s slow, quaint, kind ways as I did in the play. Mr. Jefferson’s beautiful, pathetic representation quite carried me away with delight. I have a picture of old Rip in my fingers which I shall never forget. After the play Miss Sullivan took me to see him behind the scenes, and I felt of his curious garb and his flowing hair and beard. Mr. Jefferson let me touch his face so that I could imagine how he looked on waking from that strange sleep of twenty years, and he showed me how poor old Rip staggered to his feet. I have also seen him in “The Rivals.” Once while I was calling on him in Boston he acted the most striking parts of “The Rivals” for me. The reception-room where we sat served for a stage. He and his son seated themselves at the big table, and Bob Acres wrote his challenge. I followed all his movements with my hands and caught the drollery of his blunders and gestures in a way that would have been impossible had it all been spelled to me. Then they rose to fight the duel, and I followed the swift thrusts and parries of the swords and the waverings of poor Bob as his courage oozed out at his finger-ends. Then the great actor gave his coat a hitch and his mouth a twitch, and in an instant I was in the village of Falling Water and felt Schneider’s shaggy head against my knee. Mr. Jefferson recited the best dialogues of “Rip Van Winkle,” in which the tear came close upon the smile. He asked me to indicate as far as I could the gestures and action that should go with the lines. Of course, I have no sense whatever of dramatic action and could make only random guesses but with masterful art he suited the action to the word. The sigh of Rip as he murmurs, “Is a man so soon forgotten when he is gone?” the dismay with which he searches for dog and gun after his long sleep, and the comical irresolution with which he signs his contract with Derrick, or rather, has it signed for him — all these seemed to be right out of life itself that is, the ideal life, where things happen as we think they should.

Going to the Theatre for the First Time

I REMEMBER well the first time I went to the theatre. It was twelve years ago. Elsie Leslie, the little actress, was in Boston, and Miss Sullivan took me to see her in “The Prince and the Pauper.” I shall never forget the ripple of alternating joy and woe that ran through that beautiful little play, or the wonderful child who acted it. After the play I was permitted to go behind the scenes and meet her in her royal costume. It would have been hard to find a lovelier or more lovable child than Elsie, as she stood with a cloud of golden hair floating over her shoulders, smiling brightly, showing no signs of shyness or fatigue, though she had been facing an immense audience. I was only just learning to speak, and had previously repeated her name until I could say it perfectly. Imagine my delight when she understood the few words I spoke to her!

Is it not true, then, that my life with all its limitations touches at many points the rich, exuberant life of the World Beautiful? Everything has its wonders, even darkness and silence, and I learn, whatever state I may be in, therein to be content.

Would that I could enrich this sketch with the names of all those who have ministered to my happiness! Some of them would be found written in our literature and dear to the hearts of many, while others would be wholly unknown to most of my readers. But their personal influence, though it escapes fame, shall live immortal in the lives that have been sweetened and ennobled by it.

The beneficent kindness of my friends has touched my life “like a summer wind laden with a thousand invisible seeds, that, dropping everywhere, spring up into flowers and fruit.” All that I hold sweetest, all that I hold most precious, I owe to my friends. In a thousand ways they have turned my limitations into beautiful privileges and made it possible for me to walk serene and happy in the shadow cast by my deprivations.

Those are red-letter days in our lives when we meet, around the corner of the street of life, people who thrill us like a fine poem, people whose hand-shake is brimful of unspoken sympathy, and whose sweet, rich natures impart to our eager, impatient spirits a wonderful restfulness which, in its essence, is divine. The perplexities, irritations and worries that have absorbed us pass like unpleasant dreams, and we wake to see with new eyes and hear with new ears the beauty and harmony of God’s real world. The solemn nothings that fill our every-day life blossom suddenly into bright possibilities. In a word, while they are near us we feel that all is well. Perhaps we never saw them before, and they may never cross our life’s path again but the influence of their calm, mellow natures is a libation poured upon our discontent, and we feel its healing touch, as the ocean feels the mountain stream freshening its brine.

Phillips Brooks and the Key to Heaven

I COUNT it one of the sweetest privileges of my life to I have known and conversed with many men of genius. Only those who knew Bishop Brooks can appreciate the joy his friendship was to those who possessed it. As a child, I loved to sit on his knee and clasp his great hand with one of mine, while Miss Sullivan spelled into the other his beautiful words about God and the spiritual world. I heard him with a child’s wonder and delight. My spirit could not reach up to his, but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left him without carrying away a fine thought that grew in beauty and depth of meaning as I grew. Once, when I was puzzled to know why there were so many religions, he said: “There is one universal religion, Helen — the religion of love, Love your Heavenly Father with your whole heart and soul, love every child of God as much as ever you can, and remember that the possibilities of good are greater than the possibilities of evil and you have the key to Heaven.” His life was a happy illustration of this truth. In his noble soul love and widest knowledge were blended with faith that had become insight.

Bishop Brooks taught me no special creed or dogma but he impressed upon my mind two great ideas — the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and made me feel that these truths underlie all creeds and forms of worship. God is love, God is our father, we are His children therefore the darkest clouds will break, and though right be worsted, wrong shall not triumph. I am too happy in this world to think much about the future except to remember that I have cherished friends awaiting me there in God’s beautiful Somewhere. In spite of the lapse of years, they seem so close to me that I should not think it strange if at any moment they should clasp my hand and speak words of endearment as they used to before they went away. Since Bishop Brooks died I have read the Bible through also some philosophical works on religion, among them Swedenborg’s “Heaven and Hell” and Drummond’s “Ascent of Man,” and I have found no creed or system more soul-satisfying than Bishop Brooks’s creed of love. I knew Mr. Henry Drummond, too, and the memory of his strong, warm hand-clasp is like a benediction. He was the most charming and delightful of companions. He knew so much, he had conquered so much, he had seen life from so many sides that it was impossible to feel dull or despairing in his presence.

Three Famous Men — Three Good Friends

DR. EDWARD EVERETT HALE is one of my very oldest friends. I have known him since I was eight, and any love for him has increased with my years. His wise, tender sympathy has been the support of Miss Sullivan and me in times of trial and sorrow, and his strong hand has helped us over many rough places and what he has done for us he has done for thousands of those who have difficult tasks to accomplish. He has filled the old skins of dogma with the new wine of love, and shown men what it is to believe, live and be free. What he has taught we have seen beautifully expressed in his own life — love of country, kindness to the least of his brethren, and a sincere desire to live upward and onward. He has been an inspirer of men, and a mighty doer of the Word, the friend of all his race — God bless him!

I have already written of my first meeting with Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. Since then I have spent many happy days with him at Washington and at his beautiful home in the heart of Cape Breton Island, near Baddeck, the village made famous by Charles Dudley Warner’s book. In Doctor Bell’s laboratory or in the fields on the shore of the Great Bras d’Or, I have spent many delightful hours listening to what he had to tell me about his experiments, and helping him fly kites by means of which he expects to discover the laws that shall govern the future airship. Doctor Bell is conversant in many fields of science and has the art of making every subject he touches interesting, even the most abstruse theories. He makes you feel that if you only had a little more time, you, too, might be an inventor. He has a humorous and poetic side, too, which is charming and his dominating passion is his love for children. He is never quite so happy as when he has a little deaf child in his arms. His labors in behalf of the deaf will live on and bless generations of children yet to come and we love him alike for what he himself has achieved and what he has evoked from others.

I remember well the first time I saw Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes. He had invited Miss Sullivan and me to call on him one Sunday afternoon. It was early in the spring, just after I had learned to speak. We were shown at once to his library where we found him seated in a big armchair by a cheerful open fire which glowed and crackled on the hearth, thinking, he said, of other days. “And listening to the murmur of the river Charles,” I suggested. “Yes,” he replied, “the Charles has many dear associations for me.” There was an odor of print and leather in the room which told me that it was full of books, and I stretched out my hand instinctively to find them. My fingers lighted upon a beautiful volume of Tennyson’s poems, and when Miss Sullivan told me what it was I began to recite

“Break, break, break,
On thy cold gray stones, O sea!”

But I stopped suddenly. I felt tears on my hand. I had made my beloved poet weep, and I was greatly distressed. He made me sit in his armchair while he brought different objects of interest for me to examine, and at his request I recited “The Chambered Nautilus,” which was then my favorite poem. After that I saw Doctor Holmes many times and learned to love him. His mind was like a rich orchard, the ripe fruit of which dropped continually as he talked. Every remark had a spicy flavor of its own, and his conversation quickened my thoughts on many subjects.

One beautiful summer day, not long after my meeting with Doctor Holmes, Miss Sullivan and I visited Mr. Whittier in his quiet home on the Merrimac. His gentle courtesy and quaint speech won my heart. He had a book of his poems in raised print from which I read “In School Days.” He was delighted that I could pronounce the words so well, and said that he had no difficulty in understanding me. Then I asked many questions about the poem and read his answers by placing my fingers on his lips. He said he was the little boy in the poem, and that the girl’s name was Sally, and more which I have forgotten. I also recited “Laus Deo,” and as I spoke the concluding verses he placed in my hands a statue of a slave from whose crouching figure the fetters were falling, even as they fell from Peter’s limbs when the angel led him forth out of prison. Afterward we went into his study, and he wrote his autograph for my teacher and expressed his admiration of her work, saying to me, “She is your spiritual liberator.” Then he led me to the gate and kissed me tenderly on my forehead. I promised to visit him again but he died before the promise was fulfilled.

Meetings with Many Literary Men

DURING the two years I spent in New York I had many opportunities to talk with distinguished people whose names I had often heard, but whom I had never expected to meet. Most of them I met first in the house of my good friend, Mr. Laurence Hutton. It was a great privilege to visit him and dear Mrs. Hutton in their lovely home, and see their library and read the beautiful sentiments and bright thoughts gifted friends had written for them. Mr. Hutton introduced me to many of his literary friends, greatest of whom are Mr. William Dean Howells and Mark Twain. I have also met Mr. Richard Watson Gilder and Mr. Edmund Clarence Stedman. They were all gentle and sympathetic, and I felt the charm of their manner as much as I had felt the brilliancy of their essays and poems. I knew Mr. Charles Dudley Warner, and once he brought to see me the dear poet of the woodlands — Mr. John Burroughs. I could not keep pace with all these literary folk as they glanced from subject to subject and entered into deep dispute, or made conversation sparkle with witticisms. But they spoke many gracious words to me, which I keep among my heart’s choicest treasures. Mr. Gilder told me about his moonlight journeys across the vast desert to the Pyramids, and I read from Mark Twain’s lips one or two of his good stories. He has his own way of thinking, saying and doing everything. I feel the twinkle of his eye in his hand-shake. Even while he utters his cynical wisdom in an indescribably droll voice, he makes you feel that his heart is a tender Iliad of human sympathy.

Women Whose Friendship is Cherished

THERE are a host of other lovely people I met in I New York: Mrs. Mary Mapes Dodge, editor of “St. Nicholas,” and Mrs. Riggs (Kate Douglas Wiggin), the sweet author of “Pansy.” I received from them gifts that have the sweet concurrence of the heart, books containing their own thoughts, soul-illumined letters and photographs that I love to have described again and again. But there is not space to mention all my friends, and indeed there are things about them hidden behind the wings of cherubim, things too sacred to set forth in cold print. It is with hesitancy that I speak even of Mrs. Laurence Hutton, who has oftenest advised and helped me in my progress through college. I have one friend to whom I am deeply indebted. He is known for the powerful hand with which he guides vast enterprises, and his wonderful abilities have gained for him the respect of all. Modesty crowns his achievements he goes about doing good, silent and unseen. Again I touch upon the circle of honored names I must not mention but I would fain acknowledge the generosity and affectionate interest with which he is making it easier for me to overcome the difficulties of college.

I have many far-off friends whom I have never seen. Indeed, they are so many that I have often been unable to reply to their letters but I wish to say here that I am always grateful for their kind words, however insufficiently I acknowledge them. A friendly letter or a hearty hand-shake gives me genuine pleasure. It may be only the clinging touch of a child’s hand, but there is as much potential sunshine in it for me as there is in a loving glance for others. I have often been asked, “Do people not bore you?” I do not understand what that means. I suppose their calls would occasionally seem inopportune if I thought of it but I never think of it. The touch of a hand may seem an impertinence, while that of another is like a benediction. I have met people so empty of joy that when I clasped their frosty finger-tips it seemed as if I were shaking hands with a northeast storm. Others there are whose fingers have sunbeams in them their grasp warms my heart.

“I Am as Happy as You Are”

MY STORY is now told, and I hope, kind reader, you are convinced how little able I was to write it. I live in my own way the life that you do, and I am as happy as you are. The outward circumstances of our lives are but the shell of things. My life is pervaded by love as a cloud by light. Deafness is a barrier against intrusion, and blindness makes us oblivious to much that is ugly and revolting in the world. In the midst of unpleasant things I move as one who wears an invisible cap.

Sometimes, it is true, a sense of isolation infolds me like a cold, white mist as I sit alone and wait at Life’s shut gate. Beyond there is light and music and sweet companionship but I may not enter. Fate, silent, pitiless, inexorable, bars the way. Fain would I question his imperious decree for my heart is still undisciplined and passionate but my tongue will not utter the bitter, futile words that rise to my lips, and they fall back into my heart like unshed tears. Silence sits immense upon my soul. Then comes Hope with sweet, sad smile and whispers, “There is joy in self-forgetfulness.” So I try to make the light in others’ eyes my sun, the music in others’ ears my symphony, the smile on others’ lips my happiness.


1.

Helen Mirren sexy pictures

Her family changed their surname to Mirren when Helen was just nine years old. Helen appeared in plays such as Antony and Cleopatra and Macbeth. Her movie career began with Caligula and then went on to continue in The Long Good Friday, Excalibur, and Cal.


A Brief History of Helen of Troy

G rowing up is hard to do, and it is harder still for Charlotte, an American high school student whose mother has died leaving her with her morose, emotionally clumsy father, who tells Charlotte that, unlike her beautiful dead mother: "You're just not very pretty honey." With those words ringing in her ears Charlotte sets out to be as beautiful, beloved and desired as Helen of Troy - a project that involves using lots of "product" to clear her acne, trying to get the local geek to have sex with her, giving a blow job to the school jock, and telling the bewildered school guidance counsellor that she plans a career in porn.

"I was made for sex," she declares, looking about 10 as she sits awkwardly in her frumpy shorts and over-sized T-shirt. This girl on the loose is dangerous - to herself and others - and things pretty soon turn ugly as fantasy and reality, Charlotte's self-image and how others really see her collide in emotional car-crash fashion. People get badly hurt.

Mark Schultz's script has a rich vein of teen-movie sassiness. Some of the best scenes are between the dowdy Charlotte and her glammed up (imaginary) best friend, Heather, a prom-queen good-looker with the best boyfriend, the best dad, the best holidays and the worst possible advice. But Gordon Anderson's production doesn't always successfully juggle the delicate balance between the comedy and the grim reality of Charlotte's home life, and the evening would be less confusing if fantasy and reality were more clearly delineated.

Despite some good performances, particularly from Andrea Riseborough as the gawky Charlotte and John Sharian as the dad who dare not touch his daughter, the production lets the audience off the emotional hook, and the message - that beauty is only skin-deep and a once-a-week application of fake tan doesn't make you any happier - is no more profound than anything peddled by Hollywood or teen chick-lit.


Show Stoppers: A Brief History of Rude and Disruptive Behavior in Theater

Helen Mirren bows at the curtain call during the press night performance of 'The Audience' at the Gielgud Theatre on Mar. 5, 2013, in London.

Berkaitan

Last week, Helen Mirren won an Olivier Award—the West End’s most prestigious accolade—for her portrayal of Queen Elizabeth II in the play The Audience. And during a weekend performance of the show, she gave an impromptu performance as a Queen not at all amused. Sebagai The Daily Telegraph reports, Dame Helen went outside at intermission to loudly scold a group of nearby drummers whose playing could be heard in the theater. (The drummers were parading to promote a May 26 gay festival called As One In The Park and had stopped right outside the stage door.) And yes, Mirren was dressed in full costume while she gave delivered her royal dressing-down. One of the parade organizers told the Telegraph that seeing Mirren as the Queen “cussing and swearing” was “a new one.”

That may be so, but the circumstances aren’t that new at all. The pesky percussionists are part of a long-ish history of dramatic disturbances, one that is— not surprisingly—dominated by mobile phones.

May 31, 2006: A cell phone goes off during a matinee of The History Boys on Broadway. The late Richard Griffiths—who had also shamed owners of ringing mobile phones during previous interruptions when the play ran in London—stops the show and starts a scene over from the beginning, warning the audience that he would only do so once.

June 21, 2009: Patti LuPone, in concert in Las Vegas, sees someone in the audience taking pictures. She stops the show and asks what’s going on out there, but receives no response. And it’s not her first time at that particular rodeo: earlier in 2009, during a Broadway performance of Gypsy, she stopped the show when someone else tried to take a picture.

Sept. 23, 2009: A cell phone goes off during a performance of A Steady Rain on Broadway…and, minutes later, goes off again. Stars Hugh Jackman and Daniel Craig stop the play to admonish the offender—and the entire incident was caught on video.

December 2011: While headlining in Richard III in Sydney, actor Kevin Spacey does double duty as noise enforcer: first, admonishing (while in character) the owner of a cell phone and, during a later performance, shining a laser pointer at audience members who were talking amongst themselves.

Jan. 10, 2012: A cell phone goes off during a performance of Mahler’s Ninth Symphony at the New York Philharmonic. Conductor Alan Gilbert stops the performance and asks the phone’s owner to shut off the device, even though the man at first reportedly denies that the offending iPhone marimba was coming from his pocket.

Mar. 22, 2012: A cell phone goes off during the emotional climax of Death of a Salesman on Broadway, during which actress Linda Edmond completes the show’s final monologue.

Nov. 11, 2012: An audience member seated in the balcony at a performance of Rahmat on Broadway vomits into the orchestra. Stars Paul Rudd and Michael Shannon reportedly continue with the show, perhaps raising the volume a bit, but joke about it during the curtain call.

December 2012: Patti LuPone seems to have changed her tactics. Although an audience member at her play The Anarchist tries to use an iPhone app as a hearing aid and ends up creating a screeching feedback sound, she lets the show go on.

As for the London drummers, they stopped their Saturday noise-making and appear to have taken no offense. After all, all publicity is good publicity—and they’re promoting press coverage of Mirren’s outburst on the As One In The Park Facebook page.


Tonton videonya: Explore: Helen, Georgia (Mungkin 2022).


Komen:

  1. Saa

    Kata -kata apa ... Hebat

  2. Chuchip

    Saya minta maaf kerana saya tidak dapat mengambil bahagian dalam perbincangan sekarang. Maklumat yang sangat sedikit. Tetapi topik ini sangat menarik minat saya.

  3. Arne

    Sudah tentu anda adalah hak. Dalam perkara ini saya suka pemikiran ini, saya bersetuju sepenuhnya dengan anda.

  4. Mazucage

    mesej yang luar biasa, sangat membantu

  5. Mezile

    Saya fikir, anda melakukan kesilapan. Saya boleh mempertahankan jawatan. Tulis kepada saya dalam PM, kami akan berhubung.

  6. Avonmore

    Fundamentally Wrong Information



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