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Buku Ireland Abad Pertengahan yang Luar Biasa Kembali ke Ireland


Buku manuskrip abad pertengahan yang sangat ketara telah dikembalikan ke Ireland. The Book of Lismore adalah kumpulan teks tulisan tangan yang disumbangkan oleh keluarga bangsawan Inggeris kepada University College Cork. Ireland mempunyai tradisi ilmiah yang panjang dan menghasilkan banyak buku abad pertengahan yang luar biasa dan manuskrip yang diterangi, seperti Book of Kells. Buku Lismore adalah salah satu "buku hebat Ireland" menurut Pemeriksa Ireland. Buku abad pertengahan khas ini mempunyai sejarah yang panjang dan kemungkinan akan membantu para sarjana untuk lebih memahami sejarah Ireland.

The Book of Lismore terdiri daripada hampir 200 halaman vellum besar. Ia mungkin ditulis oleh ahli-ahli Taurat profesional yang sebahagiannya tergolong dalam Ordo Fransiskan. Karya itu disusun di Kilbrittain, County Cork untuk Lord of Carbery Fínghin Mac Carthaigh (1478-1505) dan isterinya. Pada Zaman Pertengahan Akhir, banyak keluarga bangsawan Irlandia menugaskan ahli-ahli Taurat untuk menulis manuskrip.

Buku Abad Pertengahan Mengenai Mitos dan Orang Suci Ireland Dan Banyak Lagi!

Buku abad pertengahan yang dikenali sebagai Book of Lismore ditulis dalam bahasa Ireland. Ini adalah ringkasan kedua-dua karya Ireland dan Eropah. Bahagian pertama terutama berkaitan dengan kehidupan orang-orang kudus Ireland, "sebelum menyampaikan bahan terjemahan: Sejarah Lombard dan Penaklukan Charlemagne," lapor RTE. Juga, buku abad pertengahan ini mengandungi Perjalanan dari Marco Polo dalam terjemahan, yang merupakan satu-satunya contoh yang ada.

Satu halaman dari Book of Lismore, buku abad pertengahan yang baru-baru ini dikembalikan ke Ireland oleh keluarga bangsawan Inggeris.

Buku Lismore juga berisi "Fionn MacCumhaill dan Fianna, seperti yang diceritakan dalam kisah panjang yang dikenal sebagai Agallamh na Seanórach," lapor RTE. Kisah-kisah ini menceritakan kehidupan dan pengembaraan pahlawan mitos dan pemburu Fionn, salah satu tokoh terpenting dalam mitologi Ireland. Banyak mercu tanda di pulau ini dikaitkan dengan Fionn yang gagah berani.

Bagaimana Buku Lismore Meninggalkan Ireland Dan Mengapa

Sejarah Kitab Lismore dalam beberapa abad kebelakangan ini sangat luar biasa. Itu diberikan kepada Earl of Cork, ayah dari saintis besar Richard Boyle, setelah pengepungan Kilbritttain Castle pada tahun 1640-an. Ia kemudian ditembok di Kastil Lismore bersama dengan seorang penyihir yang tidak ternilai, seorang uskup atau kakitangan biara, dengan alasan yang tidak diketahui. Buku abad pertengahan hanya ditemui semasa kerja-kerja pengubahsuaian pada awal 19 ika abad. Ia kekal di Istana Lismore sebelum menjadi milik Keluarga Cavendish dan dibawa ke Britain. Keluarga Cavendish menyumbangkan buku itu kepada University College Cork.

Kitab Lismore disembunyikan lama di Istana Lismore dan kemudian "dibawa" ke England. Sekarang, buku abad pertengahan Ireland yang luar biasa ini kembali lagi di Ireland. (Bob / Stok Adobe )

Buku Lismore Abad Pertengahan: Kini Merupakan Bahagian Perpustakaan Ireland

Menurut RTE, Duke of Devonshire, anggota keluarga Cavendish, menyatakan bahawa "keluarganya berharap buku ini dapat memberi manfaat kepada banyak generasi pelajar, sarjana dan pengunjung universiti." Derma mereka akan menyertai lebih dari 200 naskah berharga, teks dan buku abad pertengahan dalam koleksi University College Cork. The Book of Lismore sebelumnya dipamerkan di universiti pada tahun 2011 dan sejak itu rundingan terus dilakukan mengenai kembalinya ke Ireland.

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  • The Book of Exposition dan Enigmatic English Bohemian

Perdana Menteri Ireland, juga dikenal sebagai Taoiseach, Micheal Martin mengucapkan terima kasih kepada Duke of Devonshire dan keluarga Cavendish atas sumbangan mereka. Dia menyambut kepulangan "salah satu buku hebat Ireland," menurut Extra.ie. Perdana Menteri Ireland juga dikutip oleh Pemeriksa Ireland mengatakan bahawa buku itu memiliki "perjalanan luar biasa selama hidupnya dan dibaca dan dikaji oleh para bangsawan dan wanita, para sarjana dan ahli kitab."

Satu lagi buku abad pertengahan Ireland yang terkenal: The Book of Kells. (Warren Rosenberg / Stok Adobe )

Buku Lismore Akan Membantu Para Ulama Memahami Sejarah Ireland

Buku abad pertengahan yang luar biasa ini juga dapat membantu para sarjana untuk lebih memahami budaya dan sejarah masyarakat Ireland pada Zaman Pertengahan Akhir. Profesor Pádraig Ó Macháin, dari University College Cork, mengatakan kepada RTE bahawa ia "memberikan" sudut baru "mengenai kehidupan ilmiah dan apa yang dianggap sebagai hiburan kepada tuan tradisi Gaelik yang mulia." Dia juga berharap dapat meningkatkan kesedaran mengenai tradisi manuskrip Ireland yang kaya.

The Book of Lismore secara rasmi disumbangkan semasa acara maya. University College Cork berhasrat untuk memaparkan buku abad pertengahan di Treasures Gallery, yang merupakan sebahagian dari Perpustakaan Boole yang terkenal. Perpustakaan dinamakan sempena ahli matematik Inggeris George Boole (1815-1864), yang mengajar di universiti. Penemuan algebra Boole sangat penting dalam perkembangan Zaman Komputer.


Manuskrip Abad Pertengahan Kembali ke Ireland Setelah Beratus Tahun di Tangan British

Salah satu manuskrip abad pertengahan paling berharga di Ireland, Book of Lismore, telah pulang hampir empat abad setelah penyitaan dari Kilbrittain Castle di County Cork.

Teks & pemilik sebelumnya, Pemegang Amanah Penyelesaian Chatsworth, menyumbangkan jilid bersejarah & # 8212 yang bertukar tangan berkali-kali setelah penangkapannya di Kilbrittain pada awal 1640-an & # 8212 ke University College Cork & # 8217s (UCC) Perpustakaan Boole.

Seperti yang dinyatakan oleh UCC dalam satu kenyataan, koleksi 198 folio vellum dianggap sebagai salah satu & # 8220 buku hebat & # 8221 dari Ireland. Dicipta untuk Lord of Carbery Ireland, F & # 237nghin Mac Carthaigh Riabhach, dan isterinya, Caitil & # 237n, pada akhir abad ke-15, manuskrip tersebut mengandungi sejumlah teks langka dan terjemahan dari kisah-kisah Eropah abad pertengahan yang langka, dan juga satu-satunya terjemahan terjemahan Ireland dari Marco Polo.

Menurut Gareth Harris dari Akhbar Seni, buku ini juga merangkumi kisah kehidupan orang suci Ireland dan kisah sekular seperti Agallamh na Sean & # 243rach, puisi Ireland abad pertengahan yang panjang yang berpusat pada pahlawan legenda Fionn mac Cumhaill dan pahlawan Fianna.

Seorang kurator mengendalikan Buku Lismore. Tome bersejarah akhirnya akan dipaparkan di Galeri Harta Karun di Perpustakaan Boole University College Cork. (Universiti Kolej Cork)

Dalam sekeping pendapat untuk penyiar Ireland RT & # 201, P & # 225draig & # 211 Mach & # 225in, seorang pakar Modern Irish di UCC, berpendapat bahawa pemilihan cerita yang dipaparkan dalam manuskrip membuat & # 8220a pernyataan yakin diri mengenai sastera bangsawan rasa di Ireland Gaelic yang autonomi pada akhir abad ke-15. & # 8221

Dia menambah, & # 8220Lokasi geografi tempat Buku ini ditulis. adalah pusat aktiviti intelektual yang berkembang maju. Pinggir laut Cork barat adalah titik fokus bagi penyair dan sarjana disiplin lain seperti perubatan dan sejarah. . Terdapat juga minat aktif dalam terjemahan karya yang popular pada masa itu di daratan Eropah. & # 8221

Setelah dikeluarkan dari Kilbrittain pada abad ke-17, Book of Lismore menjadi milik Earl of Cork Ireland pertama, Richard Boyle, yang ketika itu tinggal di Lismore Castle di County Waterford. Abad berikutnya, pemilikan istana dipindahkan melalui perkahwinan dari keluarga Boyle kepada Cavendishes Inggeris, Dukes of Devonshire artifak berharga itu kemudian disimpan di dinding Lismore & # 8217s & # 8212mungkin untuk disimpan. Tome itu baru ditemui semula pada tahun 1814, ketika pengubahsuaian yang diperintahkan oleh Duke of Devonshire keenam sedang berlangsung.

Menurut pernyataan itu, buku itu disimpan terutama di Lismore hingga 1914, ketika dipindahkan ke Devonshire House di London. Kemudian, keluarga Cavendish memindahkan naskah itu ke tempat duduk leluhur mereka Chatsworth di Derbyshire. Ia tetap ada sehingga sumbangannya baru-baru ini kepada UCC.

John O & # 8217Halloran, presiden sementara universiti & # 8217, menggambarkan Kitab Lismore sebagai & # 8220 simbol vital warisan budaya kita. & # 8221

Dalam pernyataan itu, dia menambah, & # 8220Tindak kemurahan hati yang luar biasa ini oleh Duke of Devonshire menegaskan kembali persefahaman bersama antara negara dan budaya kita masing-masing, pemahaman yang berdasarkan pencerahan, kesopanan dan tujuan bersama. & # 8221

UCC merancang untuk mengembangkan Galeri Harta Karun untuk memaparkan buku tersebut kepada umum. & # 211 Mach & # 225in menulis bahawa kakitangan juga berharap dapat bekerjasama dengan pelajar untuk menyalin teks Ireland dan membuatnya dapat diakses secara terbuka melalui portal dalam talian universiti & # 8217s. Kedua-dua pelajar sarjana dan siswazah akan mempunyai peluang untuk mempelajari teks secara langsung, katanya untuk RT & # 201.

Dalam pernyataan yang berasingan, Pemegang Amanah dari Penyelesaian Chatsworth, yang telah memiliki buku tersebut sejak organisasi mereka ditubuhkan pada tahun 1946, menyatakan bahawa perbincangan mengenai penghantaran balik naskah telah berlangsung selama lebih kurang satu dekad.

& # 8220Selepas Buku Lismore dipinjamkan ke University College Cork untuk pameran pada tahun 2011, kami telah mempertimbangkan cara untuk kembali ke sana secara kekal, & # 8221 kata Peregrine Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire ke-12, dalam pernyataan Trustees & # 8217 . & # 8220Saya dan keluarga saya gembira ini dapat dilaksanakan, dan berharap ia dapat memberi manfaat kepada banyak generasi pelajar, sarjana dan pengunjung universiti. & # 8221


Ingin mengetahui mengenai Ireland sekarang? Inilah buku-buku yang boleh dibaca

Anne Enright

The Spinning Heart oleh Donal Ryan

Hati Berputar memberi kita gambaran kaleidoskopik di luar bandar dan bandar kecil Ireland pada tahun-tahun selepas kemalangan ekonomi. Donal Ryan tahu segala-galanya mengenai wataknya: bukan hanya harapan, impian dan kekecewaan mereka, tetapi juga nombor di slip gaji dan pemeriksaan keselamatan sosial mereka.

Dia adalah seorang penulis yang murah hati dan buku ini dipenuhi dengan cahaya dan bayangan, cinta dan tragedi. Ada, bagi seorang penulis lelaki muda, sangat jijik. Ryan juga percaya pada kekuatan penebusan naratif dan membuat kisah besar dari kehidupan kecil dengan cara yang hampir operatik (sama seperti cara JM Synge beroperasi). Emosi yang kuat, ikatan keluarga yang kekal, perincian sosial forensik: jika lagu itu anda boleh menyanyikannya, terutama pada hari seperti ini.
Anne Enright adalah pemenang untuk fiksyen Ireland. Novel terbarunya ialah The Green Road

Eimear McBride

Beatlebone oleh Kevin Barry

Saya sangat mengesyorkan Kevin Barry cemerlang Beatlebone kepada sesiapa yang tiba di Ireland buat pertama kalinya. Walaupun tindakan itu berpusat pada lawatan yang dibayangkan oleh John Lennon ke Clew Bay dan Achill pada tahun 1970-an, cara Barry menangkap keanehan barat sepertinya bagi saya - dan saya adalah orang asli di daerah ini - untuk tetap benar Pantai Mayo dan orang-orang hari ini seperti ketika itu.

Terdapat kualiti yang luar biasa untuk suasana yang diciptakannya, dengan orang-orang ini menempel pada batu di hujung dunia yang basah kuyup oleh hujan dan basah dalam bahasa yang paling mulia, namun ia juga sangat menggugah tempat yang unik itu. Buku dan rantau ini indah, tidak menentu dan penuh dengan poket yang tidak dijangka.
Eimear McBride adalah pengarang A Girl is Half-Thing and The Lesser Bohemians

Joseph O'Connor

Siri Ross O'Carroll-Kelly

Buku terhebat tentang bagaimana Ireland moden adalah karya Ross O'Carroll-Kelly yang paling baru. Kadang-kadang ada khabar angin bahawa buku-bukunya sebenarnya adalah karya fiksyen komik yang ditulis oleh seorang wartawan Dublin yang nakal, sangat nakal dan supertalen, tetapi mana-mana pembaca yang waras tahu bahawa ini tidak begitu. Mereka adalah catatan yang benar, tepat dan bermakna dari kelas sosial yang menghancurkan Ireland, yang ditulis dari dalam.

Memang sukar untuk membayangkan Ross pernah menulis atau (memang membaca) novel, kecuali jika ia ditulis oleh pemain ragbi. Tidak ada pemahaman penuh tentang apa yang telah dilalui oleh Ireland sejak tahun 2000 tidak mungkin tanpa catatan kronik ribut ribut O'Carroll-Kelly yang tidak dapat dilupakan, yang kadang-kadang (tetapi jarang) sukar dipercayai.
Joseph O'Connor adalah ketua penulisan kreatif Frank McCourt di University of Limerick. Novel terbarunya ialah The Thrill of It All

Ferriter Diarmaid

Amongst Women oleh John McGahern

John McGahern menghabiskan satu dekad untuk menulis Di Kalangan Wanita, yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1990. Ini menggambarkan keberadaan Michael Moran yang diseksa, seorang veteran Perang Kemerdekaan, dan pengalaman keluarganya yang dia berjaya mengasingkan dan menyiksa namun masih memiliki identiti yang berbeza. Ini adalah mengenai kehidupan provinsi abad pertengahan Ireland, termasuk sisi gelapnya, tetapi juga menimbulkan tema nasional yang lebih besar.

Pertanyaan yang ditanyakan Moran tentang perjuangan kemerdekaan pada awal abad ke-20 - "Untuk apa semuanya?" - bergema kerana banyak sebab. Moran merasakan dia dan rakan-rakannya telah berjuang untuk kemerdekaan pada waktu terbaik dalam hidup mereka, hanya kerana kesalahan asli untuk menjadikannya agak tidak bermakna. Apabila dia mati, mungkin tepat bahawa Tricolor yang menutup keranda itu semakin pudar.

Bagi Moran, yang terasing dari kehidupan umum, impian republik telah lama lenyap, walaupun penglibatannya dalam tema keluarga, kelangsungan hidup, wang dan penindasan wanita menjadikannya simbol yang sesuai dari Ireland abad ke-20.

McGahern melakukan karya yang memukau di kanvas kecil, dia adalah tukang kata yang tepat dan anggun, dan selain daripada wawasannya mengenai watak dan apa yang mendorong orang, dia juga dapat menulis dengan indah mengenai alam semula jadi dan Ireland luar bandar, komuniti kecil dan bebas dan masalah tempatan, menggunakan dialog yang kaya dan suasana yang tepat.

Buku McGahern tetap menjadi dakwaan kegagalan kemerdekaan Ireland dan perayaan keistimewaan Ireland.
Diarmaid Ferriter adalah profesor dari moden Ireland sejarah di UCD

Claire Kilroy

Solar Bones oleh Mike McCormack

Mike McCormack menangkap sesuatu yang luar biasa Tulang Suria, sebuah novel mengenai seorang lelaki biasa yang baik dan mempertimbangkan pelbagai aspek kehidupannya yang biasa dan baik. Sebilangan besar ini membingungkannya, ada yang marah kepadanya (ahli politik yang korup digambarkan dengan baik) tetapi semuanya bermandikan cintanya terhadap kehidupan keluarganya, kehidupan yang dia tidak cukup faham sudah berakhir, kerana ini adalah Semua Jiwa 'Hari, hari orang-orang mati kembali ke rumah keluarga mereka.

Skop eksperimentalisme McCormack dan kemanusiaannya - dua sifat yang jarang dijumpai dalam pengarang yang sama - menunjukkan bahawa inovator prosa abad ke-20 yang hebat, James Joyce dan Samuel Beckett, ada dalam DNAnya, tetapi dia menangkap kekeliruan dan kekacauan Irlandia peralihan baru-baru ini dari besar ke kecil dengan ketangkasan hati dan gaya sehingga dia sudah boleh dianggap sebagai salah satu penulis prosa Ireland abad ke-21 yang hebat.
Novel Claire Kilroy merangkumi Tenderwire dan The Devil I Know

Marina Carr

Mencipta Ireland oleh Declan Kiberd

Ini adalah penggalian dan penerokaan jiwa Ireland yang cemerlang melalui prisma sastera kita. Ia bermula dengan Wilde dan terus ke Friel dengan bab-bab lain yang menetapkan konteks sejarah dan sosial. Sekiranya keterangan saya terdengar kering, buku itu tidak. Ia ditulis dengan penuh humor, ketekunan, kegembiraan, dan ironi yang sihat mengenai penemuan diri kita, bangsa, siapa yang kita fikir dan siapa kita mungkin. Apa yang ditangkap oleh Kiberd dengan cemerlang adalah keagungan tragis dari imajinasi Irlandia dan kembali ke masa yang hilang: kecapi, bard, Tuatha dé Dannan, Cúchulainn,

Kathleen Ni Houlihan dan banyak lagi. Semua batu sentuhan masa lalu mitos dan mistik kita yang masih merembes seperti kabut melalui urat kita walaupun usaha terbaik kita untuk memotongnya. Seperti Nell di Beckett's Permainan tamat penolakan kita masih seperti: “Ah semalam. . . "

Dan mungkin itulah yang terbaik dari kita. . . dan jika kita bernasib baik, mungkin membawa kita ke masa depan.

Mencipta Ireland adalah yang mesti dibaca bagi sesiapa sahaja yang ingin mengetahui siapa diri kita, apa sebenarnya kita dan, dengan rahmat Tuhan, apa yang mungkin kita miliki suatu hari nanti.
Tayangan terbaru Marina Carr adalah adaptasi dari Anna Karenina di Teater Abbey. Dia baru sahaja memenangi Hadiah Windham-Campbell bernilai $ 165,000

Sara Baume

Martin John oleh Anakana Schofield

Apa yang sangat menarik Martin John, Novel kedua Anakana Schofield, adalah seolah-olah seolah-olah pengarang Ireland yang berpangkalan di Vancouver mungkin telah berusaha dengan menyusun senarai faktor yang menjadikan buku berpotensi tidak dapat dibaca. Ia tidak teratur dan berulang-ulang, perkara pokoknya amat membimbangkan.

Protagonis adalah pesalah seks berdaftar di bandar London setelah diusir dari rumahnya di barat Ireland oleh ibunya yang menderita. Untuk kebanyakan novel, kita terperangkap dalam kitaran perjuangannya dan tersandung dan menyesal.

Martin John adalah karya kontradiksi yang luar biasa: kandungan tidak selesa yang disangkal oleh gaya memikat, irama yang tidak dapat ditahan dan humor yang sangat keruh. Ini adalah fiksyen mengambil risiko yang paling berwawasan apa yang diceritakannya kepada kita tentang Ireland hari ini yang sangat baik tanpa cermin mata berwarna.
Novel terbaru Sara Baume ialah A Line Made by Walking

Lisa McInerney

Skins Muda oleh Colin Barrett

Tidak ada gambaran yang lebih benar mengenai kehidupan orang Ireland di bandar kecil pasca-milenium daripada koleksi cerpen lanskap-dalam-potret Colin Barrett yang indah Kulit Muda. Protagonisnya kebanyakannya adalah pemuda yang tidak berani, tidak berperikemanusiaan, tetapi ada juga wanita muda, terpaut atau digagalkan oleh keadaan, dan masyarakat bergaul, dan kerinduan yang tidak dapat diekspresikan, dan kadang-kadang kesedaran yang sengit dan tersentak mengenai batasan dalam menjalani kehidupan seseorang di atas batu lembap di Atlantik utara.

Ini adalah Ireland yang paling mengecewakan dan menghalangi tetapi juga yang paling tulus dan nyata. Saya tahu setiap watak ini, setiap jalan yang mereka lalui, setiap kereta yang mereka naiki, setiap pub yang mereka lewati, setiap retort yang mereka lalui di kawasan mereka. Bagi pembaca yang ingin melihat dan mengetahui jiwa Ireland, inilah dia, inilah buku.
Novel debut Lisa McInerney, The Glorious Heresies, memenangi Hadiah Baileys untuk Fiksyen Wanita dan Hadiah Desmond Elliott. Sekuelnya, The Blood Miracles, keluar bulan depan

Fintan O'Toole

Pertemuan oleh Anne Enright

Perhimpunan, yang memenangi Hadiah Booker pada tahun 2007, melakukan apa yang hanya dapat dikendalikan oleh fiksyen terbaik: ia menjadikan sesuatu yang koheren daripada percanggahan yang mustahil. Dan percanggahan mustahil adalah di mana Ireland moden berada.

Buku ini pascamoden dalam globalisasi yang melampau tetapi sering bersifat moden dalam perjuangannya untuk mencapai masa lalu yang gelap dan gelap. Dari segi ekonomi dan budaya sangat terbuka, namun penuh dengan senyap dan rahsia.

Novel yang memikat Enright sampai ke tengah-tengah dualitas ini. Di permukaan, ini adalah novel Ireland yang sangat tradisional: pengebumian, pengasingan, keluarga besar, rahsia. Tetapi ia mengambil bentuk tradisional ini dan mendorongnya ke dalam dunia hiper-pengguna pada zaman booming Ireland tahun 2000-an.

Ini adalah fiksyen yang ditulis dengan indah dan bukan karya sosiologi, tetapi memberi anda rasa yang sangat akut tentang masyarakat yang benar-benar terpaut dalam beberapa cara tetapi masih berlarutan dengan masa lalu pada orang lain. Ia mempunyai banyak kesedihan, beberapa kegembiraan dan semacam tenaga hipnotik, yang hampir seperti apa yang dirasakan oleh Ireland pada abad ke-21.
Fintan O'Toole adalah pengarang bersama Modern Ireland dalam 100 Artworks

Taman David

Children's Children oleh Jan Carson

Sekiranya anda datang ke Ireland, maka lawatan ke Ireland Utara adalah mustahak. Kami tentu saja dapat membungkus Masalah untuk anda dengan lawatan bas dan teksi tetapi sebaiknya mengelakkan sejarah yang tidak masuk akal dan biasanya hanya mitologi suku. Untuk sejarah sebenar, anda boleh mengikuti salah satu lawatan Game of Thrones kami, memakai jubah, melengkapkan diri dengan pedang. Dan jika anda mahu buku yang dibaca dalam perjalanan anda ke utara, pilih Jan Carson's Children's Children untuk mendapatkan potret asli warga Belfast. Dalam dunia realisme sihir anda akan bertemu dengan patung manusia yang kehilangan kemampuan untuk bergerak, anak terapung yang ditambat ke pagar belakang rumah dan seorang lelaki yang mula menyapu jalan di luar pintu rumahnya dan kemudian terus berjalan. Dengan kelucuan, kisah-kisah ini membuktikan bahawa dunia kita sama gila dan indahnya dengan orang lain dan di sini di puncak pulau yang memang kita mahukan,
Karya terbaru David Park adalah Gods and Angels

Peter Murphy

Catatan dari koma oleh Mike McCormack

Catatan dari koma, diterbitkan pada tahun 2005, adalah novel Ireland pertama yang menangani kesan awal teknologi pada jiwa, menyandingkan realisme bandar kecil dengan babak abad ke-21.

Watak utamanya adalah JJ O ’Malley, seorang pemuda bermasalah yang tumbuh di Mayo barat setelah diselamatkan dari rumah anak yatim Romania. Terkutuk dengan fikiran yang cemerlang tetapi tidak tenang, JJ mengalami gangguan setelah kematian sahabat dan sukarelawannya sebagai guinea pig dalam skim hukuman percubaan EU yang kontroversial yang disebut Projek Somnos, yang mencadangkan koma yang mendalam sebagai alternatif yang ekonomik untuk menyajikan sistem penahanan.

Terapung di kapal penjara yang berlabuh di Pelabuhan Killary, bentuk koma yang dipantau secara terus-menerus dalam talian, JJ menjadi ikon nasional. Dalam satu adegan yang tidak dapat dilupakan, kumpulan berkumpul di festival muzik tunduk di hadapan gambarnya di layar lebar, sambil melaungkan, "Kami tidak layak."

Struktur buku ini bersifat kontrapuntal: kesaksian langsung dari tokoh-tokoh penting dalam kehidupan JJ bergantian dengan naratif selari bergaya dan hiper-serebral yang diberikan dalam bentuk koma-bercakap yang kerumitannya yang tersembunyi menunjukkan Philip K Dick menjalani terapi regresi.

McCormack menulis buku itu di bawah pengaruh totem Pelangi Gravity, Kerosakan, Riddley Walker dan Neuromancer, serta buku-buku karya Christopher Priest dan Richard Powers. Novel spekulatif yang terletak di lanskap abad pertengahan, Catatan dari koma adalah salah satu dari beberapa novel yang boom-time untuk menolak versi fiksyen Ireland yang diluluskan oleh lembaga pelancongan yang menyokong visi pascamoden (dan dystopian) mengenai kehidupan abad ke-21.
Novel terbaru Peter Murphy adalah Shall We Gather at the River

Martina Evans

Menceritakan, Cerita Terpilih oleh Evelyn Conlon

Tidak ada yang mempunyai suara seperti Evelyn Conlon. Anda tidak akan tahu apa yang akan dia katakan seterusnya. Dia datang dari sudut ganjil yang tiba-tiba kelihatan seperti satu-satunya sudut yang bermanfaat.

Dengan kisah-kisah mulai dari ingatan lirik yang sangat kuat tentang lampu kilat yang bermain di parit pada malam Kennedy ditembak ke perang kontraseptif pada tahun 1980-an, wanita pemberontak dalam bengkel penulisan dan gembar-gembur milenium, Conlon benar-benar moden tetapi berakar dalam sejarah wanita Ireland .

Sebaik sahaja anda mengalami cengkamannya, anda tidak akan mahu berhenti, seperti pencerita Mengambil Scarlet sebagai Warna Sebenar: "Saya akan memberitahu anda apa yang tertulis dalam buku, Susan. Saya tidak pernah mahu membaca dan saya harap saya tidak pernah memulakannya, tetapi seperti rintihan alkohol mengenai puding Krismas, sekarang sudah terlambat. "
Martina Evans adalah novelis dan penyair. Koleksi terbarunya ialah The Windows of Graceland

Donal Ryan
The Lost Child of Philomena Lee oleh Martin Sixsmith

Orang yang masih hidup yang terlibat dalam perbudakan ibu yang belum berkahwin dan pengabaian dan penjualan anak-anak mereka nampaknya tidak mengingati perbuatan mereka. Nasib baik, kenangan beberapa mangsa mereka masih utuh dan telah komited untuk mencetak. The Lost Child of Philomena Lee oleh Martin Sixsmith menceritakan kisah hidup seorang wanita yang ditahan di Biara Sean Ross di Roscrea ketika dia hamil pada tahun 1950. Setelah tiga tahun menjaga anaknya di biara, dia dicuri darinya dan dijual, dengan seorang gadis kecil, kepada pasangan Amerika. Philomena dan anaknya Michael menghabiskan hidup mereka mencari satu sama lain. Kisah yang memilukan ini akan membantu sesiapa sahaja yang baru tiba di sini untuk memahami mengapa kita kini dalam proses untuk menghadapi kenyataan bahawa negara kita dipenuhi lubang yang tidak bertanda yang penuh dengan tulang kecil.
Karya terbaru Donal Ryan adalah Semua Kita Harus Tahu

Kolum McCann
Kolam oleh Claire-Louise Bennett

Salah satu buku yang menggegarkan saya dari zon selesa saya ialah Pond oleh Claire-Louise Bennett. Ireland yang dia hasilkan sangat akrab namun saya rasa saya belum pernah ke sana sebelum ini, paling tidak di negara sastera. Saya juga sangat menyukai apa yang dilakukan oleh Edna O'Brien dalam novelnya The Little Red Chairs. Dia memperluas gagasannya mengenai Ireland hingga ke, dan bahkan di luar, Eropah.
Surat kepada Penulis Muda oleh Colum McCann akan diterbitkan pada bulan Mei

Paschal Donohoe
Skippy Dies oleh Paul Murray

Skippy Dies oleh Paul Murray adalah karya dari banyak genre. Bersungguh-sungguh
menenun komedi, tragedi dan satira sepanjang hidup dan mati
Skippy, novel ini telah menghiburkan dan sangat menggerakkan saya sejak itu
penerbitan pada tahun 2010. cakerawala karya ini begitu luas, terbentang
dari fizik teori tali, cinta pertama dan bahkan menyentuh
bahaya donat. Terletak di Seabrook College for Boys, the
Kisah Skippy dan rakan sebiliknya Ruprecht membuat saya ketawa dan kemudian menangis
dengan kesedihan. Pada lebih dari 600 halaman, ia juga diterbitkan pada awalnya sebagai
tiga jilid. Walau bagaimanapun, ini tidak boleh menghalang pembaca berpotensi. Ia
bermula dan berakhir dengan kematian. Tetapi terdapat banyak kehidupan yang sibuk
antara.
Paschal Donohoe adalah Menteri Perbelanjaan dan Pembaharuan Awam


Angela's Ashes oleh Frank McCourt

"Hujan mendorong kami ke gereja - tempat perlindungan, kekuatan kami, satu-satunya tempat kering kami"

Jalan Georgia Limerick dan suku abad pertengahan yang padat akhirnya muncul dari pemandangan jalanan yang mendung dari kemiskinan Frank McCourt yang dilanda masa kanak-kanak tahun 1930-an untuk menjadi destinasi yang meriah. Memoir dan penghormatan yang mengagumkan kepada ibunya, Angela, yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1996, mengemukakan tawarannya untuk bertahan hidup dalam keadaan tinggal di pinggiran masyarakat Limerick, dan memperolehnya hadiah Pulitzer. Tidak diketahui oleh McCourt muda, legenda Hollywood di masa depan Richard Harris dan Terry Wogan tumbuh dalam keadaan yang berbeza, tanpa latar belakang kematian, hampir mati kelaparan. Pergi ke O'Connell Avenue ke South's Bar dan lihat di mana ayah Frank meminum pendapatan keluarga mereka yang sedikit.


‘Unheard-of Mortality’ & # 8230. Kematian Hitam di Ireland

Kajian tentang Kematian Hitam di Ireland penuh dengan kesukaran: beberapa penulis sejarah dan ahli sejarah Ireland memberitahu kami sedikit tentangnya. Komplikasi selanjutnya adalah peperangan yang hampir berterusan dan kemerosotan ekonomi akibatnya sudah berlangsung jauh sebelum kedatangan wabak pada tahun 1348. Namun demikian, ada bukti yang cukup untuk menunjukkan bahawa Kematian Hitam, dan wabaknya yang seterusnya, mempunyai kesan yang signifikan dan berkekalan di Ireland. Sebagai contoh, kajian dendokronologi telah menunjukkan bahawa hutan ek tumbuh semula pada abad keempat belas kemudian, bukti penurunan yang signifikan dalam bukti arkeologi penduduk, walaupun sedikit, menunjukkan gangguan dalam perdagangan dan perdagangan yang berlangsung hingga pertengahan lima belas.

Masuk melalui port

Kesan wabak itu tidak seragam: koloni Anglo-Ireland terjejas lebih luas dan radikal daripada Gaelic Ireland. Ia menyerang pertama di pelabuhan koloni, dibawa ke sana oleh tikus yang dijangkiti dan kutu mereka di gudang kapal dagang atau barang dagangan. Menurut Friar John Clyn, biksu Fransiskan yang berpusat di Kilkenny yang catatannya merupakan satu-satunya akaun saksi mata, ia pertama kali muncul di Howth atau Dalkey dan tersebar ke Dublin dan Drogheda pada akhir Julai atau awal Ogos. Ia sampai di Bristol paling awal pada 24 Jun dan selambat-lambatnya pada 1 Ogos. Waktu yang singkat antara kedatangannya di Bristol dan di Ireland akan menunjukkan bahawa wabak itu dibawa ke Ireland terus dari benua, mungkin dari wilayah Bordeaux.
Secara umum, jalur transmisi ke seluruh negara berada di sepanjang jalan darat antara pelabuhan dan kota pasar, di sepanjang sungai yang menghubungkan bandar pasar dan pelabuhan laut, terutama di timur dan selatan, dan melalui lalu lintas laut antara pelabuhan di timur dan pantai selatan. Jelas Dublin dan Drogheda membentuk satu inti penyakit ini. Memandangkan kepantasan wabak pada bulan-bulan pembukaan dan kelambatan perjalanan darat, kemungkinan penyakit ini diperkenalkan ke selatan langsung dari Inggeris atau benua melalui pelabuhan yang sibuk seperti Waterford, Youghal dan Cork. Tetapi di kawasan pedalaman pelabuhan-pelabuhan ini, terutama di bahagian timur dan selatan yang lebih banyak menetap, penghantaran mungkin berlaku di darat, kerana jaraknya tidak besar. Lebih-lebih lagi, wabak di wilayah perawan sering menyerang pneumonia (melalui udara), terutama pada bulan-bulan musim sejuk, yang bermaksud penularan langsung antara manusia, dan akibatnya penyebaran yang lebih cepat dan kadar kematian yang lebih tinggi.

‘Kematian yang tidak pernah didengar’

Wabak itu berleluasa di Dublin antara bulan Ogos dan Disember, menetapkan corak keganasan yang akan menularnya ke bahagian lain di negara ini. Clyn menulis bahawa 'dari ketakutan dan ketakutan, lelaki jarang berani melakukan kerja-kerja ketakwaan dan belas kasihan, seperti menziarahi orang sakit dan menguburkan orang mati' dan khotbah yang masih ada mengisyaratkan mangsa-mangsa yang terselamat di Drogheda merampas harta benda janda dan anak di bawah umur. Yang lain menjawab dengan pergi haji atau solat. Fungsi awam dibatalkan seperti yang disarankan oleh penembusan yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya dalam catatan khutbah Richard Fitzralph, Uskup Agung Armagh, antara 11 Mei 1348 dan khutbahnya yang seterusnya pada 25 Mac 1349, dan sekali lagi sehingga pemergiannya dari negara itu pada bulan Jun 1349 Terdapat jurang yang lengkap dalam catatan sesi sidang parlimen antara 1348 Mei dan 1350 Mei dan gangguan yang serupa dalam catatan sesi sidang hakim.
Pada tahap ini, wabak itu sangat menular, sehingga 'barang siapa yang menyentuh orang sakit atau orang mati segera dijangkiti dan mati'. Clyn juga menekankan kehancuran: 'Hampir tidak ada rumah di mana satu-satunya rumah mati, tetapi pada umumnya lelaki dan isteri bersama anak-anak mereka dan seluruh keluarga menjadi jalan kematian yang biasa'. Juru bara dan biara terpengaruh teruk: dua puluh lima saudara Fransiskan meninggal di Drogheda, dua puluh tiga di Dublin. Dari Dublin, seorang ahli sejarah di francais Fransiskan di Nenagh memberitahu, 'kematian yang belum pernah didengar' ini menyebar ke bandar-bandar dan kampung-kampung sekitarnya, yang kebanyakannya ditinggalkan tanpa penduduk. Bahawa kedua-dua strain pneumonik dan bubonik wabak ini ditanggung oleh gambaran grafik Friar Clyn yang merangkumi gejala-gejala dari kedua bentuk tersebut: dia menggambarkan letusan pada pangkal paha atau di bawah ciri ketiak dari wabak bubonic yang kebanyakannya disebarkan oleh gigitan kutu, tetapi juga sakit kepala dan ludah darah yang membezakan bentuk pneumonik. Penyebaran melalui hubungan langsung sangat mungkin berlaku di Dublin dan Drogheda pada fasa pertama yang lebih merebak dari wabak wabak di Ireland. Ketika bergerak melampaui tahap pertama ke pedesaan sekitarnya, tidak mungkin ia terus berjalan dalam bentuk pneumatik, terutama sekali ia menjauh dari kota-kota besar dan kawasan pemukiman yang paling padat. Its transmission to the rest of the country would have been by a creeping epizootic of rat and flea contacts, determined by the density of the rat and flea populations this in turn depended on the density of the human population, and on the frequency and extent of trade.

Before the end of the year 1348, the plague had penetrated into Louth, Meath and Kildare and had reached Kilkenny by 25 December 1348. The fact that it took so long suggests it reached the city from the south-east along river traffic on the Barrow, rather than overland from Dublin. Clyn tells us that the pestilence was rife in Kilkenny between Christmas and March and took a toll of eight Dominican friars in one March day alone. Clyn does not record any more deaths he died himself soon after, very likely of the plague. But given its contagious nature, the plague would have inevitably spread among others of Clyn’s Franciscan community as well as among the town’s inhabitants. The record falls silent again until June 1349 when the prior of the Augustinian monastery of St Catherine in Waterford died of it. The plague spread along the south-east and south, to New Ross, Clonmel, Cashel, Youghal and Cork, though we do not know the exact dates. The Nenagh annalist is our only direct source for its transmission in the south and he focuses only on those deaths of interest to the Franciscan order. He records the deaths on 10 and 29 August of two friars at Nenagh. By 1 November, the plague had reached Limerick, where the death of one friar is noted. It then very likely spread to Ennis, County Clare, where the death is recorded of Matthew Caoch MacConmara, a lay patron of the Franciscans. And in the following year, the annalist notes the death of Traolach, son of Donncha O’Brien, who was buried at Nenagh. Though the cause of these latter deaths is not mentioned explicitly, their juxtaposition alongside the entry recording the coming of the plague to Ireland strongly indicates that these were plague deaths.
Drogheda, Dublin, New Ross, Waterford, Youghal and Cork: the catalogue of port towns testifies to the fact that coastal areas bore the brunt of the disease. The English chronicler, Ralph Higden writes that the plague was ‘especially violent…around the coastal towns of England and Ireland’. Fitzralph in an address to the pope in 1349 stated ‘the plague had fallen most heavily on those who lived near the sea and has found more victims among fisherfolk and sailors than among any other class of men’. However, the less populated areas of the north and west did not escape entirely. The plague is recorded in Ulster in 1349 when ‘great destruction of people was inflicted therein’, though only two victims are named. The plague raged in Connacht and, according to the annals, especially in Moylurg in County Roscommon in 1349, again probably in late November or early December the Four Masters merely record that ‘great numbers were carried off’. The Annals of Clonmacnoise also record the Black Death in Roscommon in 1348, probably a scribal error since the plague would most likely have taken longer to reach the west of Ireland. The disease was active in Mayo as late as 1350 and the annalist there writes of the deaths of William Ó Dúda, Bishop of Killala, Concubhar Ó Lochlainn, Cathal Ó Flathartaigh, the son of Dónal Mac Gearranagastair and his brothers who all died ‘within six days because of the pestilence’. The Annals of Loch Cé record the deaths of five persons, including the Bishop of Killala, in 1350.

Gaelic Irish less affected

However, the brevity and formulaic quality of the annalists’ entries would suggest that the Gaelic-Irish population was not affected to the same extent as was the Anglo-Irish colony. Other commentators agree: Geoffrey Le Baker, a contemporary English chronicler, wrote that the plague in Ireland ‘killed the English inhabitants there in great numbers, but the native Irish, living in the mountains and uplands, were scarcely touched’, though he adds that in a later outbreak in 1357, the plague took the Gaelic-Irish ‘unawares and annihilated them everywhere’. In summer 1349, Archbishop Fitzralph asserted the plague had not yet reached the ‘Irish nation’. The Great Council in July 1360 complained of a plague that was ‘so great and so hideous among the English lieges, and not among the Irish’. The main reason for this disparity was that Anglo-Irish settlements were more vulnerable to the inroads of rats and fleas. The colonists were mostly concentrated in land below 600 feet, leaving the mountainous, hilly and less accessible areas to the Gaelic-Irish whose settlements were mainly pastoral and scattered, either in irregular nucleated rural settlements or individual farmsteads. The Anglo-Normans had settled mainly in well-drained, lower-lying land east of a line from Skibbereen to Galway to Coleraine this was the area in which the Black Death wrought its havoc. A network of villages with strong trading links characterised much of this area: ideal conditions for the transmission of plague.
Severe mortality was noted in County Dublin, on the royal manors of Newcastle Lyons, Saggart, Crumlin, Oughterard and Castlewarny in County Tipperary, on the estates of the Archbishop of Cashel and in the manor of Lisronagh numerous manors in Kilkenny and Meath by 1351 were left with empty cottages, untilled lands and fallen rents because of the deaths by plague of tenants. The priory of Augustinian nuns at Lismullin in County Meath suffered greatly from the plague and its successor of 1361 and its numbers were reduced from fifty-four to thirty-two, a mortality of 42.6 per cent that is close to the 45 per cent average death rate calculated for monasteries in England. The monastery of Llanthony Secunda in Duleek, County Meath, was left with vacant holdings because the tenants fled. These details suggest that the mortality from the plague in the more densely populated areas was between 40 and 50 per cent. Surviving records indicate high mortality among the clergy, though again since most chroniclers were monastic, they tended to focus on their clerical brethern. Mortality among the Irish bishops was about 18 per cent, similar to the estimate for the bishops of England. Mortality among the lower ranks of the clergy was higher, since they had greater contact with the public: Clyn writes that the pestilence was so contagious that ‘both the penitent and the confessor were together borne to the grave’. Mortality was highest among the regular clergy, given that abbeys and friaries offered ideal conditions for the propagation of the plague bacillus. The Franciscans lost almost 50 per cent of their houses in Dublin and Drogheda. In 1361 after a succession of plagues, only two friars remained in the Franciscan house at Nenagh, and a similar figure is reported in 1365 as surviving in the neighbouring Tyone Priory of St John. In other places, such as St Catherine’s in Waterford, only the death of the prior is recorded, but given the highly contagious nature of the plague, the number of plague deaths must have been far higher than has been recorded.

After the plague…

The effects of such loss of life were at once immediate and long-lasting. In rural areas, landlords were faced with a continuing shortage of tenants, falling rents and profits tenants were able to profit from the labour shortage and seek higher wages and better conditions, though conditions for tenants in the colony never became as favourable as in England. A few reports indicate its devastation: in 1351 on the estates of the see of Cashel the ‘lands and rents have been all but totally destroyed by the king’s Irish enemies and by the mortality of their tenants in the last plague’. On the de Burgh estates in Meath, Kilkenny and Tipperary, holdings fell tenantless and remained so through 1351 because tenants could not be found. Numerous manors in County Kilkenny, for example, were severely hit: on the manor of Latthedran over sixty acres of land were still reported as ‘waste’ in 1351 over 127 acres and three cottages on the manor of Loughmoran were reported as vacant in Easter 1350 because of pestilence on the manor of Callan one-sixth of the land was tenantless in 1348-9 and by the following year this had risen to over half, over 300 acres. By 1351, vacant holdings had dropped to twenty-six acres, but the fact that the manor’s revenues continued to fall suggests that some tenants may have enlarged their holdings to include the vacant lands. In other manors rents were reduced, to attract new tenants and to dissuade others from moving elsewhere. Obviously, the impact of the plague varied from region to region, depending on the nature of the terrain and communications. What is clear is that the continuation of warfare and the demands this created made recovery even more difficult. The 1352 plea for royal aid from the tenants and farmers of the king’s manors in County Dublin echoed a complaint common throughout the east and south:
as well because of the late pestilence in that land as on account of the excessive prises of the king’s ministers in Ireland, they are so entirely impoverished that, unless a remedy be applied, they will not be able to maintain themselves and pay the farm due to the king.
But despite all measures, reduced rental returns and vacant holdings are still reported for the royal demesnes well into the 1360s and later. A record from 1392-3 for the township of Colemanstown in the manor of Newcastle Lyons, Dublin, reported that only three tenants remained there, sixteen of the tenants having been ‘cut off by the late pestilence’.
In cities and towns the effects were even more immediately evident, given their larger populations living in quarters favourable to the transmission of disease. Clyn writes that 14,000 people died in Dublin between 8 August and 25 December, indicating an average daily mortality of one hundred. Whatever the mathematical accuracy of this figure, it highlights the extent of the mortality in Dublin which propelled a demographic decline that was to continue until the mid-sixteenth century when one estimate puts its population at 8,000 inhabitants. A report from 1351 notes that ‘in the time of the said pestilence the greater part of the citizens of Cork and other faithful men of the King dwelling there all went the way of the flesh’. Houses were left uninhabited, indicating that whole families must have died. High mortality is noted in Drogheda, New Ross, Waterford and in the busy port town of Youghal, where sources would suggest a mortality of about 45 per cent among the burgesses of the town, a figure in line with the 40-50 per cent figure calculated for coastal settlements elsewhere.

Towns devastated

The effects of the plague on the towns were devastating. Labour shortages and the consequent disruption of the rural economy threatened the food supply to towns: food shortages became frequent. Conditions for survivors continued to worsen: towns became the object of the incursions of resurgent Gaelic chieftains the resulting increased defence costs meant higher taxes on a shrinking population. Many towns fell into arrears and in ever increasing numbers petitioned for tax relief, citing both the pestilence and war as the agents of their misfortune: Dublin, New Ross, Clonmel all petitoned for aid in 1351. So too did Waterford, Drogheda, Youghal and others. The burdens were such that many left Ireland altogether. In Dublin, for example, in 1427 ‘owing to pestilence, incursions and divers heavy burthens…the citizens were unable to pay the rent to the Crown…Many of the commons had subsequently left Dublin and would not return to the city, on which great loss and manifest desolation was thus entailed’. Emigration continued, despite all efforts to stem the flow by requiring licenses to emigrate or to transport emigrants. Contemporary records create a picture of houses decaying, empty lots and ruined walls. In Cork, victims’ houses were reported to be falling into ruin in 1351. Contraction was an inevitable result: part of the quayside in Drogheda fell into disuse, indicating a downturn in trade in this busy port. A gap in the pottery record in Cork between 1350 and 1450 is a silent testimony to the decline in population, the decrease in demand and disruption in trade that happened in the wake of the plague. Even smaller inland market towns suffered, though those without a commercial base suffered most. In the smaller villages, many burgesses unable to support themselves probably drifted into becoming labourers, taking advantage of the labour shortages in the rural sector. The effect was to hasten the disappearance of smaller villages, a process that was to continue into the seventeenth century, though only one, Kinsalebeg, has been positively identified as having been deserted due to the Black Death.

Demographic effects

As with any epidemic, the outbreak of 1348 cannot be treated in isolation and a study of its demographic effects cannot be considered apart from the later related outbreaks. The recurring nature of the plague meant that sustained recovery was not possible and a chronic pattern of crisis mortality set in. In 1361, there was ‘a great mortality of people, consuming many men but few women’, and in 1363 there was ‘a great mortality in Ireland and especially in Connacht, Thomond, Kerry and Desmond’. There were outbreaks in 1370, 1383, 1390-3, 1398 and periodically thereafter. And these are just the outbreaks that have been recorded there may have been other localised outbreaks that were not noted in the official records. Admittedly, later outbreaks were less virulent, though research in other countries has shown that areas which escaped the plague in 1347-9 were severely affected in later outbreaks. Many chroniclers note that later outbreaks often affected young people particularly. Plagues affecting children are recorded in 1350 and 1361 and in 1370 the Annals of St Marys Abbey Dublin recorded a great pestilence ‘of which many nobles and citizens and especially young people and children died’. This had obvious consequences for fertility and ensured that the population’s chances of recovering from plague mortality were further damaged. The recurrence of the plague was in effect the single, most significant effect of the Black Death: the long-term result was crisis mortality, lower fertility and had a profound effect on slowing population recovery. Whereas there was some demographic recovery in the earlier decades of the sixteenth century in Europe, this did not happen until the seventeenth century in Ireland, thanks to the continuation of warfare, the frontier conditions of colonial life in Ireland and recurring outbreaks of plague.
The precise contribution of the Black Death to this demographic decline eludes quantification. The continuation of natural mortality, of other fatal diseases and our ignorance of contemporary population figures makes the task of estimation well-nigh impossible. There is the important consideration that Ireland in general had not experienced the same population growth in the thirteenth century as had England and other European countries and Irish towns in particular were not as crowded as European towns. Moreover in Ireland, it is difficult even to come up with satisfactory figures for specific groups or areas as the records are not comprehensive or consistent. Archbishop Fitzralph stated it had destroyed more than two-thirds of the English nation in Ireland and individual religious houses claimed death rates of over 50 per cent, figures that tally with historians’ estimates of overall mortality in Europe. The plague’s effect on demographic decline in Ireland in the later middle ages was a cumulative one. Thanks to famine and warfare, the population of the colony in Ireland had already been declining for some decades before the Black Death. The plague sealed the downward trend many epidemiologists would even argue that exogenous factors such as pestilence are, in the end, ultimately responsible for large-scale demographic downturns. But for those alive in 1348, the Black Death was an inexplicable and inescapable disease and its aftershocks were felt long after the terror it first inspired had been forgotten.

Maria Kelly is a history graduate of University College Cork.

Further reading:

M. Kelly, A History of the Black Death in Ireland (Stroud 2001).

K. Down, ‘Colonial society and economy in the high Middle Ages’ in A. Cosgrove (ed.), A New History of Ireland, ii: Medieval Ireland 1169-1534 (Oxford 1987).


Medieval Latin Manuscripts

Trinity College Library holds an exceptional collection of medieval manuscripts written in Latin, Irish, French, German, Italian, Greek, Icelandic and Middle English.

The Library&rsquos Latin manuscripts comprise around 450 separately numbered items and are especially rich in historical and theological texts. The medieval codices for which the Library is best known are the Book of Kells (MS 58, c. 800 AD) the Book of Durrow (MS 57, c. 700 AD), and the Book of Armagh (MS 52, c. 807 AD). These and other Gospel manuscripts of the period, including the so-called "Codex Usserianus Primus", (MS 55, ?5th century), the Book of Dimma and the Book of Mulling (both 8th century AD) form part of the changing exhibition in the Old Library.

Other celebrated manuscripts in the collection include:

  • MS 81: the Fagel Missal produced by the nuns of Delft in AD 1459-1460
  • MS 53: a 12th-century New Testament and Psalter from Winchcombe Abbey in England
  • MS 177: a life of St Alban written and decorated by the great 13th-century English historian and artist Matthew Paris

The Tribes of Galway

Galway is often referred to as The City of The Tribes. This is in reference to the fourteen families who dominated the political and commercial life of the city between the 13th and 18th centuries. Much of the religious silverware produced in Galway was commissioned by these prominent Galway families and donated to religious institutions. Twelve of the fourteen Galway Tribes are represented in memorial inscriptions on these ecclesiastical chalices, namely, Kirwan, D’Arcy, Bodkin, Skerrett, Lynch, Joyce, Browne, Font, French, Deane, Martin and Blake with Morris and Athy the only absentees.

Galway Hallmarks

Prior to 1784 and the establishment of the Irish Assay Mark, Galway goldsmiths had their own mark of origin. This mark is identified by an anchor. This town stamp was usually accompanied by the initials of the maker. From 1683 until 1737, four of Galway’s goldsmiths marked their ware accordingly

  • Barthelomew Fallon, 1683 – 1718
  • Richard Joyce, 1691 – 1737
  • Mark Fallon, 1714 – 1731
  • Thomas Lynch, 1720 – 1724

There seems to have been a connection between Richard Joyce and Richard Fallon. Not only did they make pieces at the same time for the same customers, but several pieces are known to have a stamping from both Joyce and Fallon. Two notable examples are The Fitzgearld-Darsy Chalice dated 1719 and silver tankard dated 1720, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

In 1784, an act was passed requiring all Irish goldsmiths to register with the Dublin Assay Office, which had been established by royal charter in 1637. Between 1874 and 1817, a total of twenty six goldsmiths from County Galway registered their names with the Dublin Goldsmiths Company.


The Concise History of Ireland

I picked up this book to read while driving the Wild Atlantic Way because it appeared a) light (it says concise right in the title) b) scholarly (Professor Duffy, Medieval History, Trinity College Dublin) c) contained plenty of maps, graphs and images (to help someone with only a passing knowledge of Irish, particularly ancient Irish, geography).

The inside cover states: "A specialist in medieval Irish history, he gives the earlier period its due treatment" Truer words were never spoken. It takes I picked up this book to read while driving the Wild Atlantic Way because it appeared a) light (it says concise right in the title) b) scholarly (Professor Duffy, Medieval History, Trinity College Dublin) c) contained plenty of maps, graphs and images (to help someone with only a passing knowledge of Irish, particularly ancient Irish, geography).

The inside cover states: "A specialist in medieval Irish history, he gives the earlier period its due treatment" Truer words were never spoken. It takes fifty pages to get to the Vikings and a hundred to get to English plantations. Unfortunately, too much ink is spilt on the etymology of names and regions. The Irish monks/missionaries are quickly passed over and the discussion of the Viking arrivals is limited to the founding of a few towns.

Irish history should be exceedingly entertaining reading. However, this book has large sections drier than a mormon funeral. Honestly, the six pages dedicated to the chronology of events at the end of the book were more stimulating than large sections. Professor Duffy attempts balance and scholarship but unfortunately is too successful and drains much of the colour from the history.

The book is also written in 2000 and not updated so it finishes with the Good Friday Accord, making the book rather dated. 2 stars for the writing, +1 for the excellent maps, graphs and images. . lebih banyak lagi

Sean Duffy, an Irish historian, is true to the word in his title, a "concise" history of Ireland. The book is an over sized one, 240 pages of text and illustrations which summarizes Ireland&aposs history from pre-historic times to 2000, at the end of the 90&aposs when Ireland&aposs economy was booming and it was known as the "Celtic Tiger".
But prosperity was the rare exception for this island country throughout most of its history, at least for most of its inhabitants. It&aposs always been a case of the "have Sean Duffy, an Irish historian, is true to the word in his title, a "concise" history of Ireland. The book is an over sized one, 240 pages of text and illustrations which summarizes Ireland's history from pre-historic times to 2000, at the end of the 90's when Ireland's economy was booming and it was known as the "Celtic Tiger".
But prosperity was the rare exception for this island country throughout most of its history, at least for most of its inhabitants. It's always been a case of the "have-nots" trying to take land, Ireland's main resource from its beginnings, from the "haves".
The Viking raiders began the plundering of the island at the end of the 8th century. Gradually, some of them became integrated into the Irish population, but these "haves" were over a period of centuries embroiled in battles, usually losing ones, with more "raiders", in later times associated with the British kings who doled out grants of Irish lands to their favorites, or launched military campaigns (Oliver Cromwell's was the most famous)to seize land.
Over centuries it was always a question of whether the "haves" were going to fight for power or whether they would try to accommodate themselves to the new "invaders" (who ironically didn't see themselves as that - Ireland was considedred a part of Britain).
Bloody insurrections marked the 19th century and the first two decades of the 20th century as the battle shifted from gaining more legislative power within the British electoral system to an outright declaration of Ireland independence. The tragedy of Ireland in the 20th century was the result of the separation of the six counties of northern Ireland from the rest of the country, and the allegiance of its mostly Protestant inhabitants to Britain. What was ignored were the rights of a large Catholic minority (Catholicism, oddly, became hopelessly politicized and was a mark of Irish identity). This time bomb of, again, "have-nots" exploded din the l960's and killed thousands before a tentative power-sharing agreement was reached at the end of the 90's.
Ireland's future? Siapa tahu? At some point, I'd guess that there will be a reunification. Economically, it has benefited enormously from being a part of the European Uion and from its tax incentives which have lured foreign corporations into the country. But these may be temporary fixes for what has always been a small agricultural-based, usually poor, country.


Catalogues and Bibliography

Catalogues for individual collections are available in the reading room of the Manuscripts and Archives Research Library.

Many of the manuscripts discussed can be viewed digitally on Irish Script on Screen and Corpus of Electronic Texts.

T.K. Abbott and E.J. Gwynn, Catalogue of Irish Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College Dublin (Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co, 1921)

E. Bhreathnach and B. Cunningham (eds), Writing Irish History: The Four Masters and their World (Dublin: Wordwell, 2007)

G. Mac Niocaill, "The Irish-language manuscripts" in: Treasures of the Library, Trinity College Dublin (Dublin: Royal Irish Academy for Trinity College Library, 1986), pp. 57-66

W. O&rsquoSullivan, "The Irish Manuscripts in Case H in Trinity College Dublin" Celtica XI (1976), pp. 229-250

R.I. Best, Osborn Bergin, M.A. O'Brien and Anne O'Sullivan (eds), The Book of Leinster, formerly Lebar na Núachongbála. 6 vols. (Dublin: DIAS, 1954-83. Diplomatic edition)

S. Mac Airt and G. Mac Niocail (eds), The Annals of Ulster (to AD 1131) (Dublin: DIAS, 1983)


The real history of how the English invaded Ireland

You may think you know the story of how the English invaded Ireland, but this excerpt from Garvan Grant’s “True(ish) History of Ireland” sheds light on some of the more subtle nuances of this dark chapter in Irish history.

An English Solution to an Irish Problem

And so began eight centuries of fun, games, and oppression. From the twelfth century on, the English did everything in their power to make the Irish more ‘English’, including teaching them tiddlywinks, making them eat Yorkshire pudding and, when all else failed, taking their lives. The Irish are a famously stubborn lot, however, and very little worked. Often, the Irish would just turn around to their conquerors and say: ‘Yip, that’s grand, we’re all English now, so you fellas can head off home and we’ll look after things here for you.’

The English usually replied: ‘How jolly decent of you! Back home, they told us you were savages, but you chaps are actually quite good sports!’

And the Irish would reply: ‘Not a bother, me lord sir! See youse later.’

Then, as soon as the English were gone, they would just carry on being all Irish, having fun and staying up late telling stories about how they managed to dupe the English.

However, the English soon realized that their policy of absenteeism was becoming a joke. They knew that the best way to defeat the cunning Irish was to suppress the entire country, which would have cost a fortune … or they could just build a big wall around the greater Dublin area and put signs on it saying, ‘Beyond this wall is Britain. No Irish, no savages, no dogs!’ They decided on the less painful latter option and called the walled area The Pale. These days The Pale is protected by the fast and dangerous M50 ring road instead of a big wall, though most people who live outside it have little or no desire to enter.

More Irish than the Irish Themselves

Ironically, the Norman and English policy of trying to make the Irish less Irish backfired, and by the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, a lot of the former oppressors had become more Irish than the Irish themselves. First among these were the Fitzgeralds, the Earls of Kildare, who looked Irish, ate chips a lot and wore Celtic football shirts. They were descended from a man called Norman Fitzgerald, who, as his name suggests, was more Norman than most Normans. He had been a big pal of Strongbow’s back in the day, but his descendants were now plotting a way to be independent of the English crown.

That particular crown was being worn by Henry VIII at the time and the Fitzgeralds decided it would be best to butter him up and pretend they were ruling Ireland in his name. The other option would have been a massive war, which would have definitely got in the way of traditional leisure pursuits such as coursing, cursing and just hanging out. This arrangement also suited Henry VIII, as he had a lot of domestic issues to deal with. Well, six to be exact.

Horrid Henry Divorces the Church

Henry’s home life also rather famously caused a row with the Church, which wasn’t keen on people divorcing their wives, let alone beheading them. This meant that a split with Rome was inevitable. Naturally, Henry decided to become head of his very own Church and dissolved all the monasteries in England and Ireland. This led Garrett Óg Fitzgerald to quip: ‘As long as “Pope Henry the Wife-Murderer” doesn’t dissolve the pubs, we shouldn’t have a problem.’

Unfortunately, someone told Henry about this particular gag, which led him to crush the Fitzgeralds and force his rule on all Irish clans. He did this using the ‘Surrender and Regrant’ policy, which meant that if you surrendered to him, he wouldn’t kill you and you could keep your land, which was doubly nice of him. The Irish chieftains agreed, but only because it didn’t really affect them either way.

The Virgin Queen: A Mostly Lovely Girl

When Elizabeth I ascended to the English throne in 1558, she took a more lenient attitude towards Ireland, because ‘the trendy young queen is desperate to find a husband, get married and settle down’. (Note: this rather sexist comment appeared in an editorial in the December 1558 edition of Hello! magazine and is not a historical fact.) She even let the people of Ireland carry on being Catholic, speak their own language and live, which was dead nice of her.

In return, all she wanted from the various chieftains who had divided the country up between them was ‘unconditional loyalty’, the swearing of an odd oath and bucket-loads of cash. This suited everyone – until some of the Irish fellas got greedy and started scrapping with their neighbors over bits of land. This led to Elizabeth showing her not so lovely side and coming down quite hard on the Irish.

Eventually, in 1607, four years after Elizabeth’s death, a bunch of Irish earls decided enough was enough. They were going to go to Europe and bring back a fierce army that would defeat the English and end the conquest of Ireland forever and ever. Unfortunately, as the weather and the food were so lovely on the continent, they stayed there and never came back. This was known as The Cowardly Flight of the Earls, though the earls later shortened it to the much more catchy ‘Flight of the Earls’.

If You Can’t Beat Them, Make Them Join You

Tired of fighting, the English then decided the best way to ‘civilize’ the Irish was to send some nice English, Scottish and Welsh people to live on their lands, so the Irish could see just how brilliant being British was. These ‘Plantations’ might have worked too, except that a lot of the planters weren’t very brilliant – or very nice. They hadn’t signed up for it because they loved the Irish and wanted to make them better people they came because they were given free land with free peasants (or ‘slaves’) to work on it. It was lovely in theory, but probably not a recipe for success on the ground.

Please Tell Me That’s Not Cromwell

Until the seventeenth century war in Ireland had been mainly about unimportant things such as land, money, and power, but after the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, it became more about good, old-fashioned religion. How God felt about this change was anyone’s guess.

In 1649, when the latest war in England ended and Charles I lost his head and couldn’t find it anywhere, the English sent over a lovely chap by the name of Oliver Cromwell. He was only in Ireland for nine months but managed to get in more violence than many other English people had done in decades.

His theory of how to win a war – and it has yet to be proved wrong – was to kill everybody. He and his army – they were originally going to call it the New ‘Slaughter Everybody’ Army but eventually decided on the much catchier New Model Army – basically attacked anyone they met who wasn’t one of their soldiers.

Many English people look on Cromwell as a great hero and a military genius Irish people, on the other hand, lean more towards the genocidal nutcase description. However he was viewed, he certainly made his mark on Ireland. The Act of Settlement of 1652 basically meant that if you were Irish, Catholic or just in the way, you could be slaughtered and have your land confiscated. The only other option was … actually, in typical Cromwellian fashion, there wasn’t any other option.

Oliver’s Army

The Irish are a generous people and are never keen to criticize anybody, even if that person’s sole aim is to wipe them off the face of the planet. They were even quite nice about Oliver Cromwell. The following is a selection of quotes from various members of the Sweeney clan who knew and loved the real Oliver Cromwell:

• Ah, sure, he wasn’t the worst by any means. Yes, he slaughtered all of us, including me, my wife and the kids, but who wouldn’t have done the same in his situation? Just doing his job.

• Religious type, as far as I remember. Big into all the God stuff. And golf. Yeah, God, golf and killing Irish people: those were his things!

• Good-looking chap and could really hold a tune. Also a sharp dresser. But apart from that, a bit of a bastard.

• Complete bitch and I really doubt he was a virgin! Or is that Queen Elizabeth I’m thinking of? Now she was a piece of work, not that I ever met her. Cute nose, though! Or was that Cleopatra?

• A gentleman through and through. You really couldn’t have met a nicer chap. And a professional, a consummate professional. If you wanted Irish Catholics taken care of, he was your only man.

The True(ish) History of Ireland by Garvan Grant with illustrations by Gerard Crowley, published by Mercier Press.

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