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Aktiviti Bilik Darjah pada Hari-Hari Terakhir Hitler

Aktiviti Bilik Darjah pada Hari-Hari Terakhir Hitler


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Pada awal tahun 1945 tentera Soviet memasuki Jerman Nazi. Pada 16 Januari, Hitler berpindah ke Führerbunker di Berlin. Dia disertai oleh Eva Braun, Gretl Braun, Joseph Goebbels, Magda Goebbels, Hermann Fegelein, Rochus Misch, Martin Bormann, Arthur Bormann, Walter Hewell, Julius Schaub, Erich Kempka, Heinz Linge, Ernst-Gunther Schenck, Otto Günsche , Christa Schroeder dan Johanna Wolf.

Hitler kini berusia hampir lima puluh lima tahun tetapi kelihatan jauh lebih tua. Rambutnya sudah kelabu, tubuhnya tersendat, dan dia sukar berjalan. Suaranya menjadi lemah dan penglihatannya sangat lemah sehingga dia memerlukan lensa khas bahkan untuk membaca dokumen dari "mesin taip Führer". Hitler juga mengalami gegaran di lengan dan kaki kirinya. Dia pada awalnya menderita ini semasa Perang Dunia Pertama dan juga setelah kegagalan Munich Putsch pada tahun 1923. Ia adalah gangguan saraf yang muncul semula setiap kali Hitler merasa dia berada dalam bahaya.

Heinrich Himmler dan Herman Goering sama-sama mempertimbangkan kemungkinan untuk menjatuhkan Hitler. Satu rancangan melibatkan Himmler untuk menangkap Hitler dan mengumumkan kepada orang Jerman bahawa Hitler telah bersara kerana tidak sihat. Keprihatinan utama mereka adalah melakukan perjanjian dengan Britain dan Amerika Syarikat yang akan menghalang Soviet Union menduduki Jerman. Para pemimpin Jerman tidak hanya prihatin terhadap pengenaan komunisme, tetapi juga takut apa yang ingin dilakukan oleh tentera Soviet untuk membalas dendam atas kejahatan perang yang dilakukan terhadap rakyat mereka oleh SS. (Dari lima juta tentera Soviet yang ditawan oleh Jerman, kira-kira tiga juta dibunuh atau dibiarkan mati kelaparan.)

Keadaan menjadi sangat terdesak sehingga pada 22 April, Hitler menghantar Christa Schroeder, Johanna Wolf, Arthur Bormann, Dr. Theodor Morell, Laksamana Karl-Jesco von Puttkamer dan Dr. Hugo Blaschke, pergi. Schroeder kemudian mengingatkan: "Dia menerima kami di biliknya yang kelihatan letih, pucat dan lesu." Selama empat hari terakhir keadaan telah berubah sehingga saya terpaksa memisahkan kakitangan saya. Oleh kerana anda adalah yang paling lama berkhidmat, anda akan menjadi yang pertama. Dalam satu jam kereta berlepas ke Munich. "

Pada 28 April, Heinrich Himmler, yang terlibat dalam rundingan rahsia dengan Count Folke Bernadotte, mendakwa bahawa Hitler berhasrat untuk membunuh diri dalam beberapa hari ke depan: "Dalam situasi yang sekarang timbul, saya menganggap tangan saya bebas. Saya mengakui bahawa Jerman kalah. Untuk menyelamatkan sebahagian dari Jerman sebanyak mungkin dari pencerobohan Rusia, saya bersedia melakukan penjajahan di Front Barat untuk membolehkan Sekutu Barat maju dengan cepat ke arah timur.Tetapi saya tidak bersedia untuk bertanding di Front Timur . "

Bernadotte menyampaikan pesan ini kepada Winston Churchill dan Harry S. Truman tetapi mereka menolak ideanya, bersikeras untuk menyerah tanpa syarat. Pada 28 April rundingan dibocorkan kepada media. Hanna Reitsch bersama Hitler ketika mendengar berita itu: "Warnanya naik menjadi merah yang memanas dan wajahnya tidak dapat dikenali ... Setelah ledakan yang panjang, Hitler tenggelam, dan untuk sementara waktu seluruh bunker terdiam." Hitler memerintahkan penangkapan Himmler. Dalam usaha melarikan diri dari Himmler kini mengambil nama dan dokumen seorang polis kampung yang mati.

Ketika tentera Soviet pertama kali memasuki Berlin, disarankan agar Hitler berusaha melarikan diri. Hitler menolak idea itu kerana dia takut kemungkinan ditangkap. Dia telah mendengar kisah bagaimana tentera Soviet merancang untuk mengaraknya melalui jalan-jalan di Jerman di dalam sangkar. Untuk mengelakkan penghinaan ini, Hitler memutuskan untuk membunuh diri. Pada akhir April, tentera Tentera Merah hanya 300 meter dari bunker bawah tanah Hitler. Walaupun kekalahan tidak dapat dielakkan, Hitler menegaskan pasukannya berjuang hingga mati. Arahan terus-menerus dikirim memberikan perintah untuk pelaksanaan mana-mana komander tentera yang mundur. Hitler membuat wasiat menyerahkan semua hartanya kepada Parti Nazi.

Pada 28 April 1945 Hitler berkahwin dengan Eva Braun. Hitler menguji pil sianida pada anjing peliharaannya Alsatian, Blondi. Braun bersetuju untuk membunuh diri dengannya. Dia boleh menjadi kaya dengan menulis memoarnya tetapi dia lebih suka tidak hidup tanpa Hitler. Braun memberitahu setiausaha Hitler, Traudl Junge. "Tolong cuba keluar. Anda mungkin belum berhasil. Dan berikan cinta saya kepada Bavaria." Junge memberi komen bahawa dia mengatakan ini "tersenyum tetapi terisak dalam suaranya."

(Sumber 2) Joseph Goebbels, catatan harian (7 Mac 1945)

Himmler meringkaskan situasi dengan benar ketika dia mengatakan bahawa pikirannya mengatakan kepadanya bahawa kita tidak mempunyai banyak harapan untuk memenangi perang secara militer tetapi naluri memberitahunya bahawa lambat laun akan ada beberapa pembukaan politik untuk muncul untuk memihak kepada kita. Himmler berpendapat ini lebih mungkin berlaku di Barat daripada Timur. Dia berpendapat bahawa England akan mengetahuinya, yang saya agak ragu. Seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh ucapannya, Himmler sepenuhnya berorientasi Barat; dari Timur dia tidak mengharapkan apa-apa. Saya masih berpendapat bahawa sesuatu lebih mungkin dicapai di Timur kerana menurut saya Stalin lebih realistik daripada Anglo-Amerika (Roosevelt).

(Sumber 4) Jeneral Karl Koller, catatan diari di mana dia mengulas apa yang diberitahu oleh Jeneral Alfred Jodl (23 April 1945)

Hitler menyatakan bahawa dia telah memutuskan untuk tinggal di Berlin, memimpin pertahanannya dan kemudian pada saat terakhir menembak dirinya sendiri. Atas sebab-sebab fizikal, dia tidak dapat ikut serta dalam pertempuran itu secara pribadi, dan juga tidak mahu, kerana dia tidak dapat menghadapi risiko jatuh ke tangan musuh. Kami semua berusaha membawanya keluar dari keputusan ini dan bahkan menawarkan untuk memindahkan pasukan dari barat untuk berperang di timur. Jawapannya adalah bahawa semuanya hancur, dan dia tidak dapat berbuat apa-apa lagi.

(Sumber 5) Adolf Hitler memberi komen kepada Hanna Reitsch yang teringat ketika dia ditemu ramah oleh pegawai perisik A.S. (8 Oktober 1945)

Hanna, kamu termasuk orang-orang yang akan mati bersamaku. Setiap daripada kita mempunyai botol racun seperti ini. Saya tidak mahu salah seorang dari kita jatuh ke tangan orang Rusia yang masih hidup, dan saya juga tidak mahu mayat kita dijumpai oleh mereka.

(Sumber 6) Count Folke Bernadotte mengirim pesan kepada Winston Churchill mengenai apa yang diberitahu oleh Heinrich Himmler pada 24 April 1945.

Dalam keadaan yang kini timbul, saya menganggap tangan saya bebas. Tetapi saya tidak bersedia untuk bertanding di Front Timur.

(Sumber 7) Alan Bullock, pengarang Hitler: Kajian dalam Kezaliman (1962)

Pada 27 April Count Bernadotte kembali dari utara dengan berita bahawa Sekutu Barat menolak untuk mempertimbangkan perdamaian yang terpisah dan bersikeras untuk menyerah tanpa syarat ... Hitler berada di sampingnya di berita ... Ini berfungsi untuk mengkristalkan keputusan untuk bunuh diri yang Hitler telah mengancam pada 22, tetapi ia belum membuat keputusan untuk dilaksanakan. Keputusan akhir ini mengikuti corak yang lain: masa ragu-ragu, kemudian keputusan tiba-tiba dari mana dia tidak boleh dipindahkan.

(Sumber 8) Erich Kempka, Saya Adalah Pemandu Hitler: Memoir Erich Kempka (1951)

Menjelang tengah hari pada 30 April 1945. Penembakan Rusia memukul Kanselir Reich dan daerah pemerintah secara berterusan. Perjuangan untuk bertahan telah menjadi lebih sengit. Dengan guruh dan retakan, seluruh blok kediaman runtuh, dan jalan-jalan di sekitar Reich Chancellery dikurangkan menjadi gurun puing.

Führer mengambil cuti kakitangannya, berjabat tangan masing-masing dan mengucapkan terima kasih atas kerja dan kesetiaan mereka kepadanya. Setiausaha Frau Junge, Frau Christian dan tukang masak Fraulein Manziarly dijemput untuk makan tengah hari. Hitler duduk di sebelah isterinya. Seperti yang telah dilakukannya di masa-masa yang baik, dia berusaha agar percakapan itu tidak dipaksa, dengan semua orang turut serta. Ketika makanan terakhir ini telah berakhir dan ketiga wanita itu telah berhenti, Hitler meminta mereka dipanggil oleh penggantinya SS-Sturmbannfuhrer Otto Günsche. Di pintu menuju ruang depannya, dia dan Eva Braun mengambil cuti mereka bertiga sekali lagi. Frau Hitler memeluk setiausaha yang sudah lama berusaha dan berjabat tangan ketiga-tiganya ketika berpisah.

Hitler juga mengucapkan selamat tinggal kepada Bormann dan penggantinya SS Günsche. Yang terakhir menerima pesanan tegas untuk menghubungi saya dan mengatur bahan bakar yang cukup untuk membakar mayat Hitler dan isterinya: "Saya tidak mahu dipamerkan setelah kematian saya dalam panopticon Rusia seperti Lenin."

(Sumber 9) Heinz Linge, Bersama Hitler hingga Akhir (1980)

Semasa saya masuk, Hitler mengucapkan terima kasih atas komitmen dan layanannya. Dia meminta saya mengeluarkan lencana Pesta emas dari salah satu pakaian seragamnya dan menyarungkannya pada "pengiktirafan khas". Sejurus selepas ini dan saya Hitler masuk ke ruang umum di mana Goebbels muncul dan memohon Hitler sebentar untuk membenarkan Pemuda Hitler membawanya keluar dari Berlin. Hitler menjawab dengan kasar: "Doktor, anda tahu keputusan saya. Tidak ada perubahan! Anda tentu saja boleh meninggalkan Berlin bersama keluarga anda." Goebbels, berdiri dengan bangga, menjawab bahawa dia tidak akan melakukannya. Seperti Führer, dia bermaksud tinggal di Berlin - dan mati di sana. Pada masa itu Hitler memberikan tangannya kepada Goebbels dan, bersandar pada saya, kembali ke biliknya.

(Sumber 11) Traudl Junge, Ke Jam Terakhir: Setiausaha Terakhir Hitler (2002)

Hanya apabila Eva Braun menghampiri saya, mantra itu sedikit rosak. Dia tersenyum dan memeluk saya. Dan beri Bavaria cintaku, "katanya, tersenyum tetapi terisak-isak dalam suaranya. Dia mengenakan gaun kegemaran Führer, yang hitam dengan bunga mawar di garis leher, dan rambutnya dicuci dan cantik. Seperti itu, dia mengikuti Führer ke biliknya - dan hingga kematiannya.Pintu besi berat ditutup.

Saya tiba-tiba disambar oleh dorongan liar untuk pergi sejauh mungkin dari sini. Saya hampir berlari menaiki tangga menuju ke bahagian atas bunker. Tetapi anak-anak Goebbels duduk di separuh jalan, kelihatan hilang. Mereka merasakan mereka telah dilupakan di bilik mereka. Tidak ada yang memberi mereka makan tengah hari hari ini. Sekarang mereka mahu pergi mencari ibu bapa mereka, dan Bibi Eva dan Paman Hitler. Saya membawa mereka ke meja bulat. "Ayo, anak-anak, aku akan membawakanmu sesuatu untuk dimakan. Orang-orang dewasa banyak yang harus dilakukan hari ini sehingga mereka tidak mempunyai masa lapang untukmu," kataku dengan ringan dan tenang. Saya dapati ceri, mentega roti dan memberi makan kepada si kecil. Saya bercakap dengan mereka untuk mengalihkan perhatian mereka. Mereka mengatakan sesuatu tentang keselamatan di bunker, dan betapa seronoknya mendengar letupan ketika mereka tahu poni tidak dapat menyakiti mereka. Tiba-tiba terdengar bunyi tembakan, begitu kuat, begitu dekat sehingga kita semua terdiam. Ia bergema di semua bilik. "Itu adalah serangan langsung," teriak Helmut, tanpa tahu betapa tepatnya dia. Führer sudah mati sekarang.

(Sumber 13) Magna Goebbels, surat kepada anaknya Helmut Quandt (28 April 1945)

Anak kesayanganku! Sekarang kita sudah berada di Führerbunker selama enam hari - ayah, enam adik-beradik kamu dan aku, demi memberikan kehidupan sosialistik kebangsaan kita satu-satunya jalan yang terhormat ... Anda akan tahu bahawa saya tinggal di sini bertentangan dengan kehendak ayah, dan walaupun pada hari Ahad yang lalu, Führer ingin menolong saya untuk keluar. Anda tahu ibu anda - kami mempunyai darah yang sama, bagi saya tidak ada yang goyah. Idea mulia kita hancur dan dengan itu semuanya indah dan luar biasa yang telah saya ketahui dalam hidup saya. Dunia yang wujud setelah Führer dan sosialisme nasional tidak lagi layak untuk tinggal dan oleh itu saya membawa anak-anak dengan saya, kerana mereka terlalu baik untuk kehidupan yang akan diikuti, dan Tuhan yang maha pengasih akan memahami saya ketika saya akan memberikan mereka keselamatan ... Anak-anak itu indah ... tidak ada kata-kata keluhan atau tangisan. Kesannya menggegarkan bungker. Anak-anak yang lebih tua merangkumi yang lebih muda, kehadiran mereka adalah berkat dan mereka membuat Führer tersenyum sesekali. Semoga Tuhan menolong saya mempunyai kekuatan untuk melakukan yang terakhir dan paling sukar. Kami hanya mempunyai satu gol lagi: kesetiaan kepada Führer walaupun mati. Harald, anak kesayangan saya - Saya ingin memberikan apa yang saya pelajari dalam hidup: setia! Setia pada diri sendiri, setia kepada rakyat dan setia kepada negara anda ... Berbangga dengan kami dan cuba menjaga kami dalam ingatan tersayang.

(Sumber 15) Ralf Georg Reuth, Kehidupan Joseph Goebbels (1993)

Magda yang menyaksikan pembunuhan anak-anaknya sendiri. Dia telah beberapa kali berunding dengan doktor SS Ludwig Stumpfegger dan Helmut Gustav Kunz dari kakitangan Canselor Reich tentang bagaimana anak-anak itu dapat dibunuh dengan cepat dan tanpa rasa sakit. Sekarang, pada petang 1 Mei, dia telah mengirim Kunz kepadanya di bunker. Keputusan telah dibuat, dia memberitahunya, dan Goebbels mengucapkan terima kasih kerana menolong isterinya "menidurkan anak-anak." Sekitar jam 8:40 malam Kunz memberi suntikan morfin kepada anak-anak. Dia meninggalkan bilik dengan tiga set katil dua tingkat dan menunggu bersama Magda Goebbels sehingga anak-anak tidur. Kemudian dia memintanya memberi racun kepada mereka. Kunz menolak, bagaimanapun, dan kemudian dihantar oleh Magda Goebbels untuk mengambil Stumpfegger. Ketika Kunz kembali bersamanya, Magda sudah berada di bilik kanak-kanak. Stumpfegger menyertainya di sana, dan kembali bersamanya setelah empat atau lima minit. Kemungkinan besar dia sendiri telah memecahkan kapsul sianida kaca, yang diterimanya dari Dr. Morell, di mulut Helga, Hilde, Helmut, Holde, Hedda, dan Heide.

Diisi dengan ketakutan akan kematian, Goebbels merokok di rantai, wajahnya ditutup dengan bintik merah. Nampaknya masih mengharapkan keajaiban, dia terus bertanya mengenai keadaan ketenteraan. Ketika waktu hampir habis, dan Soviet diharapkan dapat menyerbu bunker itu kapan saja, dia membuat Schwagermann penggantinya berjanji untuk membakar mayatnya dan isterinya. Kemudian dia mengambil cuti mereka yang tinggal di bunker. Dia jelas berjuang untuk mempertahankan ketenangannya, yang dia cuba tunjukkan dengan bermacam-macam kejayaan. "Beritahu Donitz," dia dilaporkan telah menginstruksikan ketua juruterbang skuadron Hitler, "bahawa kita memahami bukan hanya bagaimana hidup dan bertarung tetapi juga bagaimana mati."

Perincian terakhir mengenai kematian Joseph dan Magda Goebbels mungkin akan tetap tidak jelas. Sudah pasti bahawa mereka meracuni diri mereka dengan sianida, tetapi tidak diketahui apakah Goebbels juga menembak dirinya di kepala. Kita juga tidak tahu sama ada mereka mati di bunker atau di luar di pintu keluar darurat, di mana Soviet menemui mayat mereka.

(Sumber 16) Heinz Linge, Bersama Hitler hingga Akhir (1980)

Bagi Dr Joseph Goebbels, Canselor Reich yang baru, tidak jelas sehingga sekarang dia dan isterinya Magda akan membunuh diri di Berlin pada hari yang sama. Setelah mengalami beberapa hari dan minggu terakhir, hampir tidak ada yang dapat mengejutkan kami lelaki, tetapi wanita, setiausaha wanita dan pelayan wanita 'diprogramkan' secara berbeza. Mereka takut bahawa enam kanak-kanak Goebbels yang cantik akan dibunuh sebelumnya. Ibu bapa telah memutuskan tindakan ini. Doktor Hitler Dr Stumpfegger harus memeriksanya. Permintaan wanita dan beberapa kakitangan yang memujuk, yang mencadangkan kepada Frau Goebbels agar mereka membawa anak-anak - Helga, Holde, Hilde, Heide, Hedda dan Helmut - keluar dari bunker dan menjaga mereka, tidak terdengar. Saya memikirkan isteri dan anak-anak saya sendiri yang berada dalam keadaan selamat ketika Frau Goebbels datang pada jam 1800 dan meminta saya dengan suara yang penuh emosi dan kering untuk pergi bersamanya ke bekas Führerbunker di mana sebuah bilik telah didirikan untuk anak-anaknya. Sesampai di sana dia duduk di kerusi berlengan. Dia tidak memasuki bilik kanak-kanak, tetapi menunggu dengan gugup sehingga pintu terbuka dan Dr. Stumpfegger keluar. Mata mereka bertemu, Magda Goebbels berdiri, diam dan gemetar. Ketika doktor SS mengangguk secara emosional tanpa bicara, dia rebah. Ia dilakukan. Kanak-kanak terbaring di tempat tidur mereka, diracun dengan sianida. Dua lelaki pengawal SS yang berdiri di dekat pintu masuk membawa Frau Goebbels ke biliknya di Führerbunker. Dua setengah jam kemudian dia dan suaminya mati. Perbuatan terakhir telah dimulakan.

Soalan 1: Sumber kajian 1, 10 dan 17. Terangkan mesej yang dinyatakan dalam sumber-sumber ini.

Soalan 2: Sumber kajian 2, 6 dan 7. Apa yang ditawarkan Heinrich Himmler kepada Winston Churchill dan Harry S. Truman? Mengapa mereka menolak tawaran ini?

Soalan 3: Dengan menggunakan semua maklumat dalam unit ini, terangkan mengapa Adolf Hitler memutuskan untuk membunuh diri pada 30 April 1945?

Soalan 4: Mengapa Joseph Goebbels dan Magna Goebbels membunuh anak-anak mereka sebelum bunuh diri?

Soalan 5: Tuliskan catatan ringkas mengenai apa yang terjadi pada yang berikut setelah mereka meninggalkan bunker Hitler: Gretl Braun, Hermann Fegelein, Rochus Misch, Martin Bormann, Arthur Bormann, Walter Hewell, Julius Schaub, Erich Kempka, Heinz Linge, Ernst-Gunther Schenck , Otto Günsche, Traudl Junge, Christa Schroeder dan Johanna Wolf.

Soalan 6: Menggunakan maklumat dalam unit ini menerangkan jenis sumber yang akan digunakan oleh sejarawan semasa menulis mengenai hari-hari terakhir Adolf Hitler.

Komen mengenai soalan-soalan ini boleh didapati di sini

Anda boleh memuat turun aktiviti ini dalam dokumen perkataan di sini

Anda boleh memuat turun jawapan dalam dokumen perkataan di sini


Kehidupan di Führerbunker: Hitler & # 039s hari-hari terakhir

Itulah kata-kata Armin Lehmann, seorang anggota Pemuda Hitler yang fanatik dan berusia enam belas tahun yang, bersama dengan ribuan remaja, telah diangkut ke Berlin pada awal April 1945 untuk mempertahankan kota itu melawan Tentera Merah yang sedang pesat maju. Lehmann dipilih sebagai kurir, menyampaikan pesan ke belakang dan ke depan dari ruangan radio Reich Chancellery ke dan dari sosok Adolf Hitler yang semakin berkurang. Menjelang April, Hitler telah pensiun secara kekal ke tempat perlindungan bom bawah tanah yang terletak berhampiran dengan Canseleri yang dikenali sebagai Führerbunker. Lehmann akan menyaksikan sendiri hari-hari terakhir lelaki yang telah membuat Jerman berlutut.

Bunker, yang terdiri daripada dua tempat perlindungan yang dihubungkan, siap secara berperingkat antara tahun 1936 dan 1944. Hitler tinggal di bunker bawah dengan rakan kongsi jangka panjangnya, Eva Braun, dan pelbagai kakitangan di 16 Januari 1945. Permaidani mahal dan permaidani menutupi lantai dan karya seni yang diambil dari Canseleri berjajar di dinding, termasuk lukisan kegemaran Hitler Frederick the Great, yang digantung di dinding di atas mejanya di tempat peribadinya yang selesa.

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Kehidupan Hitler dan Stalin: Dua sisi duit syiling yang sama

Hitler akan menghabiskan 105 hari tinggal di bunker. Ketika jaring menutup rezimnya, kehidupan bagi staf di Canseleri dan bunker menjadi mabuk dan merosot. Pegawai-pegawai, di antaranya Martin Bormann, seorang setiausaha swasta Hitler yang tidak popular, sering dimasukkan ke dalam bilik wain yang luas di Chancellery pada awal hari. Seorang wanita terkenal yang terkenal, Bormann menemui banyak peserta dalam suasana yang semakin meriah ketika Soviet memasuki. '

Sementara itu, Hitler bersiar-siar setiap hari di sekitar taman-taman elegan di Chancellery dengan anjing gembala Jerman kesayangannya, Blondi. Itu adalah salah satu kesenangan terakhirnya. Namun, ketika Tentera Merah mulai maju terakhir di ibukota dan peluru mulai turun ke Canseleri dan kebunnya, bahkan hal ini dinafikannya.

Hari terakhir Hitler menceburkan diri di luar adalah pada pagi 20 April. Ia adalah hari lahirnya yang ke-56. Pada tahap ini, dia memotong sosok yang sangat berbeza dari penakluk kemenangan lima tahun sebelumnya. Ketagih dengan candu kuat yang diresepkan oleh doktor peribadinya, Dr. Theodor Morell, nampaknya gemetar dari Penyakit Parkinson dan kelihatan jauh lebih tua dari usianya, Führer melangkah keluar ke taman Canseleri yang sekarang hancur untuk memberikan pingat kepada anak-anak Pemuda Hitler.

Ketika para komandannya yang setia mula meninggalkannya, Hitler menyedari akhir pemerintahannya sudah hampir

Di antara mereka yang bertemu Hitler pada hari itu adalah Armin Lehmann. Dia menerima Salib Besi dari Führer kerana keberanian dalam pertempuran di mana dia telah menyelamatkan dua rakannya pada awal Januari. Kanak-kanak itu tidak dapat mempercayainya ketika Hitler mencengkam pipinya dan memberi wajah gemetar. "Kami semua mengidolakan Hitler," dia kemudian teringat. "Kami berdedikasi untuk mengikuti jalannya tanpa henti walaupun kami menghindari peluru Sekutu."

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Membunuh Hitler: Banyak percubaan pembunuhan terhadap Adolf Hitler

Selepas masa yang singkat di luar, Hitler kembali ke bunkernya dan tidak pernah keluar lagi. Keesokan harinya, dia memerintahkan apa yang tersisa untuk menyerang Soviet yang maju, tetapi perintahnya tidak diendahkan. Mendengar ini, Hitler marah dan buat pertama kalinya dia mengakui perang telah kalah. Sekarang hanya tinggal masa sebelum Berlin dikalahkan dan Soviet mencapai Führerbunker.

Enam hari setelah menyedari perang kalah, Hitler menerima berita bahawa Heinrich Himmler sedang berusaha untuk merundingkan penyerahan Jerman dengan Amerika. Karena marah dengan pengkhianatan ini, Hitler menyatakan Himmler sebagai pengkhianat dan meminta wakil SSnya, Hermann Fegelein yang menjijikkan, dibawa keluar dan ditembak. Bahawa Fegelein adalah saudara ipar Eva Braun tidak ada bezanya dengan diktator yang marah itu.

Ketika para komandannya yang setia mula meninggalkannya, Hitler menyedari akhir pemerintahannya sudah hampir. Berita sampai kepadanya bahawa Benito Mussolini telah ditangkap, dieksekusi dan tubuhnya digantung terbalik dari tiang lampu di Milan. Bertekad untuk tidak berkongsi penghinaan yang sama, Hitler memutuskan untuk mengakhiri hidupnya. Eva Braun memberitahu Hitler bahawa dia akan mati di sampingnya. Atas kesetiaannya yang berterusan, Hitler akhirnya memutuskan untuk menikahinya.

Pasangan ini berkahwin tepat selepas tengah malam pada 29 April dalam upacara sivil yang melibatkan kedua-dua pihak yang bersumpah bahawa mereka berasal dari darah Aryan tulen. Majlis perkahwinan yang agak sunyi diadakan setelah upacara itu sementara Hitler mengundurkan diri ke tempat kerjanya dengan setiausahanya, Traudl Junge, untuk menentukan wasiat dan perjanjian terakhirnya. Di dalamnya, dia sekali lagi menyalahkan orang Yahudi untuk penyakitnya dan Jerman.

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Visi Gelap Hitler untuk Inggeris

Keesokan harinya, Hitler mendapat kabar bahawa pasukan yang mempertahankan Berlin kehabisan peluru dan hanya tinggal masa sebelum pasukan Soviet yang mengepung menguasai bunker tersebut. Hitler menyedari masanya telah habis.

"Dia seperti hantu - dia sepertinya tidak melihat saya atau siapa pun," Lehmann kemudian ingat. 'Dia hanya menatap ke depan, hilang akal. Pada saat itu, bunker itu digoncang oleh gegaran kuat ketika bom meletup. Kotoran dan mortar meneteskan kami, tetapi dia tidak berusaha untuk membersihkannya. Dia kelihatan jauh lebih tidak sihat daripada 10 hari sebelumnya di majlis sambutan hari lahirnya ketika saya pertama kali bertemu dengannya. Nampaknya dia menderita penyakit kuning. Wajahnya pucat. '

Setelah memerintahkan doktornya untuk meracuni anjingnya Blondi untuk menguji keberkesanan kapsul sianida yang dia dan Eva ingin ambil, Hitler dan pengantin barunya mengucapkan selamat tinggal kepada kakitangan bunker dan bersara ke tempat persendirian mereka. Di sana, Braun bunuh diri dengan sianida dan Hitler menembak dirinya sendiri. Menurut arahannya, mayat Hitler dan Braun dibawa ke kebun Canselori dan dibakar. Kerana landasan Canselori hampir selalu dilindungi oleh tahap ini, penjaga yang ditahan dengan kremasi tergesa-gesa berlari ke pintu masuk bunker dan melemparkan korek api di badan yang basah dengan petrol. Akibatnya, Pasangan ini berkahwin tepat selepas tengah malam pada 29 April dalam upacara sivil yang melibatkan kedua-dua pihak yang bersumpah bahawa mereka adalah darah Aryan tulen. Majlis resepsi perkahwinan yang agak sunyi diadakan setelah upacara itu sementara Hitler mengundurkan diri ke tempat kerjanya dengan setiausahanya, Traudl Junge, untuk menentukan wasiat dan perjanjian terakhirnya. Di dalamnya, dia sekali lagi menyalahkan orang Yahudi untuk penyakitnya dan Jerman.

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Lelaki yang tidak menembak Hitler

Keesokan harinya, Hitler mendapat kabar bahawa pasukan yang mempertahankan Berlin kehabisan peluru dan hanya tinggal masa sebelum pasukan Soviet yang mengepung menguasai bunker tersebut. Hitler menyedari masanya telah habis.

"Dia seperti hantu - dia sepertinya tidak melihat saya atau siapa pun," Lehmann kemudian ingat. 'Dia hanya menatap ke depan, hilang akal. Pada saat itu, bunker itu digoncang oleh gegaran kuat ketika bom meletup. Kotoran dan mortir meneteskan kami, tetapi dia tidak berusaha untuk membersihkannya. Dia kelihatan jauh lebih tidak sihat daripada 10 hari sebelumnya di majlis sambutan hari lahirnya ketika saya pertama kali bertemu dengannya. Nampaknya dia menderita penyakit kuning. Wajahnya pucat. '

Setelah memerintahkan doktornya untuk meracuni anjingnya Blondi untuk menguji keberkesanan kapsul sianida yang dia dan Eva ingin ambil, Hitler dan pengantin barunya mengucapkan selamat tinggal kepada kakitangan bunker dan bersara ke tempat persendirian mereka. Di sana, Braun bunuh diri dengan sianida dan Hitler menembak dirinya sendiri. Menurut arahannya, mayat Hitler dan Braun dibawa ke kebun Canselori dan dibakar. Kerana landasan Canselori hampir selalu dilindungi oleh tahap ini, penjaga yang ditahan dengan kremasi tergesa-gesa berlari ke pintu masuk bunker dan melemparkan lampu lebih ringan ke badan yang basah dengan petrol. Akibatnya, seorang pengawal lain yang tidak menyaksikan jalan masuk ke pintu ini menyangka mayat-mayat itu terbakar secara spontan.

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Sejarah Tembok Berlin

Keesokan harinya, Magda Goebbels - yang bersama suaminya Joseph dan enam anaknya berpindah ke bunker pada 22 April - membunuh anak-anaknya dengan bantuan doktor gigi SS. Goebbels dan isterinya kemudian naik ke kebun di mana mereka ditembak mati atau membunuh diri (laporan berbeza-beza) dan mayat mereka dibakar. Mayat mereka tidak dikebumikan, tetapi ditinggalkan di tanah kawah untuk ditemui oleh tentera Soviet dua hari kemudian.

Kakitangan yang tinggal sama ada membunuh diri atau melakukan beberapa percubaan berdarah untuk keluar dari bungker dan melalui garis Soviet. Ada yang berjaya, banyak yang tidak. Armin Lehmann berjaya mengelakkan penangkapan oleh Tentera Merah. Dia ditembak semasa melarikan diri dan kemudian ditangkap oleh tentera Amerika yang merawat luka-lukanya. Martin Bormann tidak begitu bernasib baik. Dia berjaya menyeberangi sungai Spree, tetapi tubuhnya kemudian terbaring mati di tanah oleh pemimpin Pemuda Hitler Artur Axmann ketika dia juga melarikan diri.

Bunker tersebut akhirnya ditangkap oleh pasukan Soviet pada 2 Mei. Di dalamnya, mereka menemui enam mayat kanak-kanak Magda Goebbels yang dibunuh. Mayat Hitler dan Braun digali dan Hitler kemudian dikenal pasti oleh rekod pergigiannya. Mayat Hitler, Braun, anjing Hitler dan keluarga Goebbels dikebumikan dan digali beberapa kali sebelum akhirnya dihancurkan ke dalam debu dan dibuang ke sungai Elbe pada tahun 1970. Tidak ada yang tersisa dari Hitler kecuali sebahagian kecil rahangnya dan sebahagian daripada tengkoraknya.

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Adolf Hitler: Kuiz Pengetahuan Hidup dan Kali

Bunker ini dinamik sebagai sebahagian dari pembongkaran Reich Chancellery antara tahun 1945 dan 1949. Dinamit tersebut menyebabkan beberapa kerosakan, tetapi sebahagian besar strukturnya tetap utuh. Sebilangan bunker tersebut dirobohkan ketika kawasan itu dibangun pada tahun 1990-an, tetapi masih banyak yang tersisa dan sekarang ada perdebatan yang sedang berlangsung di Jerman mengenai apakah ia harus dibuka untuk pelancong. Sementara itu, semua yang sekarang menunjukkan bahawa ini pernah menjadi lubang terakhir tiran yang aneh, adalah papan maklumat kecil di sebelah tanah yang kosong.

Dan bagaimana dengan Armin Lehmann, remaja setia yang fanatik yang merupakan orang terakhir yang melihat Hitler masih hidup? Dia dipaksa untuk menyaksikan sendiri kehebatan rejim yang dia sokong ketika orang Amerika membawanya untuk melihat kengerian sebuah kem kematian Nazi. Dia meninggalkan kepercayaan Nazi pada hari yang sama dan memutuskan untuk menjadi aktivis perdamaian. Dia menghabiskan sepanjang hidupnya berkeliling dunia untuk mempromosikan keamanan, toleransi dan tanpa kekerasan pada acara yang diadakan di lebih dari 150 negara. Dia meninggal di Teluk Coos, Oregon pada 10 Oktober 2008.


Seorang lelaki yang sakit

Menjelang April 1945, kesihatan Hitler merosot dengan cepat. Lengan kirinya sering bergetar, kulitnya pucat dan wajahnya bengkak. Percubaan pembunuhan pada tahun 1944 telah merosakkan gendang telinga. Saksi melaporkan bahawa matanya sering difilmkan. Dia mengalami kekejangan perut yang kuat pada saat krisis. Dia mengambil titisan mata Benzedrine dan kokain untuk membuatnya sepanjang hari dan barbiturat untuk membantunya tidur pada waktu malam. Makanannya tidak dapat membantu keadaannya. Seorang vegetarian dan paranoid yang kuat karena diracuni, dia hanya makan kentang tumbuk dan sup nipis pada akhirnya.


Ohio, 2011: Seorang guru menugaskan pelajar kulit hitam berusia 10 tahun untuk bermain sebagai orang yang diperbudak dalam simulasi lelong budak. Georgia, 2017: Sebuah sekolah meminta pelajar kelas lima berpakaian sebagai "watak" Perang Saudara untuk "Hari Pembelajaran Pengalaman Perang Saudara." Seorang ibu bapa kulit hitam, Corrie Davis, melaporkan bahawa rakan sekelasnya yang berusia 10 tahun berpakaian sebagai pemilik ladang dan mengatakan kepada anaknya, "Kamu adalah hamba saya." New York City, 2018: Pegawai memecat seorang guru kulit putih yang dilaporkan membuat pelajar kulit hitam terbaring di lantai dan kemudian melabuhkan punggung untuk menunjukkan kepada mereka seperti apa "perbudakan". Dan minggu lalu, seorang ayah Tennessee menulis tweet mengenai latihan "Sejarah Hidup" di sekolah anak perempuannya di mana seorang pelajar kelas lima berpakaian sebagai Hitler dan memberi hormat kepada Nazi. Tidak lama selepas itu, para pelajar mula saling memberi salam Nazi "di lorong dan rehat."

Bagaimana seorang guru boleh menganggap permainan sejarah ini adalah idea yang baik? Jawapan ringkas: Guru tanpa perspektif berusaha menjadikan sejarah peribadi dan akhirnya mengukuhkan ketuanan putih atas nama "belajar." (Walaupun tidak selalu jelas bangsa apa yang mengajar para pengajar dalam kisah-kisah ini: Pada tahun 2015–16, 80 peratus guru di sekolah awam Amerika berkulit putih, melayani populasi pelajar yang merupakan minoriti 51 peratus.) Jawapan yang lebih panjang: Kejadian bilik darjah ini menunjukkan bagaimana idea pedagogi mengenai nilai pengalaman dalam belajar tentang sejarah, niat baik untuk mengajar "sejarah keras", dan tujuan liberal yang tidak jelas mengenai pemahaman pelbagai budaya semuanya boleh menjadi sangat salah, sangat salah.

Idea bahawa "hidup melalui" sejarah, secara terkawal, mempunyai nilai pendidikan berasal dari gerakan pendidikan Progresif awal abad ke-20. Penyelidik Hilary Dack, Stephanie van Hover, dan David Hicks telah menelusuri idea di sebalik apa yang mereka sebut "pengalaman belajar" kembali kepada ahli teori dan pendidik John Dewey, yang percaya bahawa anda mempelajari sesuatu dengan lebih mendalam ketika anda mengalaminya, dan bukannya ketika seseorang duduk di hadapan kelas dan memberitahu anda tentang mereka.

Dalam pencarian pangkalan data, saya mendapati bahawa jurnal untuk guru sejarah mula memaparkan artikel mengenai permainan peranan di dalam kelas pada akhir 1970-an dan awal 1980-an. Itu mungkin disebabkan oleh pengaruh beberapa projek main peranan yang menonjol. Latihan pedagogi ini secara eksplisit anti-rasis dalam niat mereka, dan mereka mempunyai hasil dramatik yang menarik perhatian media. Pada tahun 1967, guru sejarah California dan anggota aktivis Pelajar untuk sebuah Masyarakat Demokrat Ron Jones menjalankan sebuah projek yang disebut Gelombang Ketiga, yang meminta pelajar dalam gerakan sosial fiksi kuasi-fasis untuk menggambarkan bagaimana orang boleh datang untuk menyokong Nazi semasa Perang Dunia II . Para pelajar jauh lebih bersemangat untuk pergerakan itu daripada yang diharapkan Jones - hasil yang membuatnya kecewa.

Pada tahun 1968, Jane Elliott, seorang guru kulit putih di Iowa yang digerakkan oleh pembunuhan Martin Luther King Jr., membuat latihan yang disebut "Blue Eyes, Brown Eyes." She divided her third-grade students by eye color and gave brown-eyed children favorable treatment. The blue-eyed children faded into the background and the brown-eyed children began to bully them, while excelling at the classroom tasks Elliot set for them. In 1970, Elliott’s simulation became the subject of an ABC documentary called The Eye of the Storm in 1981, Jones’ experiment became a TV movie called Gelombang.

The well-intentioned idea that teachers in a classroom can increase engagement by setting up a simulation seems to have trickled into history and social studies classrooms in all kinds of janky ways in the decades since then. Cory Wright-Maley, a professor of education at St. Mary’s University in Canada who studies simulations in social studies, writes that teachers and teacher educators don’t really have a collective language to identify what experiential learning is, or what it’s supposed to do. One result is the kinds of horror stories I listed above another less-painful outcome is failed lessons that go nowhere.

In 2015, researchers Dack, van Hover, and Hicks analyzed 14 videotaped lessons, pulled from a larger corpus of videotapes made in third- through 12 th - grade social studies classrooms, that involved experiential instructional techniques. The team found that 12 of the 14 had significant problems in execution. These problems weren’t always related to the infliction of emotional trauma—often, a game or simulation just didn’t bekerja, such as in a sixth-grade lesson on 19 th -century immigration that included an element where students pretended to be on a boat, bouncing and bobbing, before returning to their seats. Some of these lessons also transmitted factual inaccuracies—a problem, the trio of researchers observed, in all social studies instruction, but it seemed to get worse in experiential lessons, when teachers went “off-script.”

“I believe teachers need a higher level of content and pedagogical knowledge” to teach role-playing games in class, LaGarrett King, a professor of social studies education at the University of Missouri, said. “We’re talking about social studies teachers who are not trained in direction, or writing for dramas, or anything like that. … What I’ve found from college students who are training to be teachers is that they lack the content knowledge sufficient enough to even talk about race, or about tough historical issues, in the classroom.” I spoke to King on a day when he taught his last class of the semester, and by way of context for our conversation, he told me that in two sections of future teachers, 40 students total, he had one male student and one woman of color the rest were white women.

A teacher may wish to teach students about the history of American slavery and may think that “feeling” their way through that history is the best way to do it. But historical empathy is much more complex than this idea assumes. In a critique of the common idea that students’ historical empathy might prompt them to adopt democratic habits and acquire an affinity for social justice, professor of education Megan Boler writes, “Passive empathy is not a sufficient educational practice. At stake is not only the ability to empathize with the very distant other, but to recognize oneself as implicated in the social forces that create the climate of obstacles the other must confront.”

This recognition of personal implication is an extremely significant intellectual and emotional leap, and one that many white adults—including teachers—have not, themselves, made. King pointed out that the teacher’s position in relationship to this history was important. Someone teaching a lesson about the Confederacy, for example, might have family members still sympathetic to the Confederacy—or she herself might be. Before teaching these lessons, he said, “Teachers need to really get in there, to understand themselves as a racialized human being.”

One danger of poorly executed simulations of the darkest parts of our history is that white or otherwise privileged students may revel in what they see as the dramatic aspects of these situations—they may actually nikmati diri mereka. Sociologist Sadhana Bery, whose children attended a school where the students were planning to put on a play about slavery, wrote a 2014 article for an education journal that described that situation in detail. According to Bery’s account, the leadership at the school emphasized the fact that the few black students in the school had not been pressured to act in the play at all all students had been told they could take whichever parts in the play they liked. But the result was that the black parents and students boycotted the play altogether, and the white students all chose to “play” enslaved people, declining all of the roles of slave traders and slaveholders. Bery writes that “the white teachers had to persuade the Asian and Latino/a students to play the roles of perpetrators of slavery.”

She attended the play’s performance in order to see the results. The white students playing the role of enslaved people enthusiastically cried and yelled when they were “sold away” from their families. Although she didn’t use this language to describe it, it’s clear that she found this performance utterly grotesque. For Bery, the “replacement of critical thought with emotion” in the course of reenactment obliterated any historical lesson that might be learned about slavery. Instead, white students were learning to “consume” historical black trauma, and reveling in the catharsis it could bring.

King, too, wondered what pedagogical benefit could come from reenacting the misery of slavery. “With the kind of anti-blackness we have in this country,” King asked me, “why do we have to show black vulnerability in the classroom? Why is that so important for us to do? Why is it so important for us to show black pain, and black suffering? I believe it does stem from this notion, that what we know about black history is about black pain and suffering.

“History is about emotion,” King added, “but there are other ways of getting at that emotion.”

When students are invited to playact oppressors, as is sometimes the case in these stories that go viral, existing power dynamics in the classroom and school get exacerbated—to the detriment of all. In April of this year, an Arizona parent wrote on Facebook that her 9-year-old son was made to walk across the classroom as two teachers and his third-grade peers yelled at him, in order to simulate the gantlet of hateful white people that the Little Rock Nine walked through when they integrated Central High School in September 1957. For Cory Wright-Maley, this kind of situation traumatizes the child who’s playing the “victim,” but also does a disservice to the ones whose teacher asked them to do the yelling. “You can’t pit kids against kids,” Wright-Maley said in an interview. “The realization that ‘I’ have the innate capacity to harm others is deeply scarring and psychologically harmful,” he wrote about role-plays that enlist students as oppressors, suggesting that teachers give students “the permission to act in response to evil, rather than being forced to embody it.”

One solution can be for the teacher to assume the role of oppressor. In a 2003 article interrogating the claim, made by historian Samuel Totten and others, that the Holocaust should never be simulated, professor of education Simone Schweber described an extensive and well-planned Holocaust role-play carried out over seven weeks in the context of a class on World War II. In this simulation, the teacher set herself up as “the Gestapo,” while every student in the class played a Jew at risk of being killed by Nazis.

While Schweber was inherently skeptical of the idea behind this exercise, when she surveyed the students in the class before and after the class, she did find that they “improved greatly” in their knowledge of the information and concepts surrounding the Holocaust. Schweber thought that the four students she interviewed in depth had, besides knowing much more about the Holocaust than they had, become truly emotionally engaged with the simulation: “All four interviewed students had come to recognize the arbitrariness of who survived and who didn’t, and all had gained a sense of the magnitude of that tragedy in the fabric of individual lives.”

Some educators, like Schweber, still see value in simulations in the K–12 classroom—if done with a very high level of investment and care. Adam Sanchez, a social studies teacher at a public high school in New York City, told me that both Rethinking Schools and Zinn Education Project—organizations he’s been involved with as an editor and writer—do produce curricula that include role-play and simulations. As an example, Sanchez pointed me to a piece describing a role-play on Reconstruction that he taught to a 12 th -grade government class in Queens. The class, mostly students of color, role-played as freedpeople living on the Sea Islands of Georgia during and immediately after the Civil War, with the game tracing the course of the actual community’s history. The students experienced emancipation, the brief hope for the future made possible by freedpeople’s land ownership right after the war, and the thwarting of that hope when Andrew Johnson became president, pardoned the slaveholders, and restored their land. “Obviously students aren’t going to be able to feel the feeling” that formerly enslaved landowners felt when the government decided to take their acres back, Sanchez said. But through the role-play, they put time into decisions that affected the community—“Are we going to spend money to build a school or are we going to create a militia?”—and so, when the news of Johnson’s decision hit them in the game, they had some investment in the situation.

In an article for the Southern Poverty Law Center’s magazine Teaching Tolerance, Ingrid Drake collected a list of recommendations for how to run an educational simulation or role-play: “Avoid simulations that can trigger emotional traumas” “Don’t group students according to characteristics that represent real-life oppression” “Build in ample time for debriefing” “Remind students to disengage from the role-play at the activity’s conclusion.” Sanchez’s Reconstruction simulation illustrates some of these practices. Sanchez said that he made sure to talk about the emotions that students experienced and to draw connections between those feelings and what the freedpeople might have gone through. It helped, too, to have a metaconversation with students about the pedagogical value of the simulation. “I always try to have time when debriefing the role-play when you acknowledge with students some of the limitations in role-play and simulation,” Sanchez said. “Any activity like that is going to necessarily simplify certain things, and I don’t think that’s necessarily a bad thing. Most histories, if you read them out of a textbook, simplify the true version of what actually happened—and that’s how most schools teach things.”

The viral role-play horror stories illustrate how far we have to go when it comes to teaching the history of slavery and the Holocaust. But LaGarrett King hopes teachers don’t get the wrong message. “What I fear is that with all the attention that these particular simulations and problematic caricatures are getting in the classroom, is that you’re going to have teachers say, ‘Well, forget it. I’m not going to teach any kind of hard history then,’ ” King said. “I like to think of it as a problem of professional development—like, ‘Hey, this is problematic! How can we fix it?’ ”

Rebecca Onion is a Slate staff writer and the author of Innocent Experiments.


Kandungan

The Last Days was first released in 1998. It was produced by June Beallor, Kenneth Lipper, Steven Spielberg, and the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation. The film included archival footage, photographs, and documents, as well as interviews with survivors of the Shoah. The Last Days was remastered and released worldwide on Netflix on May 19, 2021.

Holocaust survivors Bill Basch, Irene Zisblatt, Renée Firestone, Alice Lok Cahana, Tom Lantos, Dario Gabbai, and Randolph Braham are featured in the film. [1] Former U.S. Representative from California Lantos was the only Holocaust survivor ever elected to the United States Congress. [4] [5] He was saved by Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg who hid Lantos in Budapest. [4] The film also included interviews with U.S. army veterans Paul Parks and Katsugo Miho, G.I.'s that liberated Dachau concentration camp. Former SS doctor Hans Münch, acquitted of war crimes at the Nuremberg trials, was interviewed about his experiences at Auschwitz concentration camp. [2] [4]

‘’The Last Days’’ received positive reviews from film critics. It holds a 92% approval rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 24 reviews. [6] On Metacritic, the film holds a 85% approval, based on 25 critics. [7]

According to Radheyan Simonpillai for Penjaga, "The film’s thesis is that the Nazis were so fueled by hatred that they would sacrifice their position in the war in order to carry out the genocide, deporting 438,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz within a six-week period." [1] Roger Ebert wrote for the Chicago Sun-Times that the film "focuses on the last year of the war, when Adolf Hitler, already defeated and with his resources running out, revealed the depth of his racial hatred by diverting men and supplies to the task of exterminating Hungary's Jews." [8] John Leonard wrote for Majalah New York, "It is a story told by five survivors of that fast-forward genocide, all of them naturalized American citizens, who return to the cities and villages from which they were seized, and to the camps to which they were committed." [4] Barbara Shulgasser-Parker, former film critic for the Pemeriksa San Francisco, wrote for Common Sense Media, "The horrors described by survivors of the death camps, the soldiers who liberated them, and historians, as well as photographs and archival footage, make this important and educational but best suited to teens and older." [9] Marc Savlov for The Austin Chronicle wrote, "Moll's film is a far cry from the elegiac poetry of, say, Night and Fog it's a document more than an examination, and its power of record is inarguable and incorruptible." [2]


PICTURES FROM HISTORY: Rare Images Of War, History , WW2, Nazi Germany

This SS officer will fight no more

Review of "The Fall of Berlin, 1945" by Anthony Beevor ( Salon.com )

If anything, German resistance was surprisingly feeble, or as a German prisoner quoted by Beevor phrased it, "Morale is being completely destroyed by warfare on German territory . we are told to fight to the death, but it is a complete blind alley." There are no real surprises here -- if you didn't know anything about World War II, you could guess from the first couple of chapters that Germany is doomed. And yet, Beevor has wrenched a better book from the fall of Berlin than he was able to from the siege of Stalingrad.

A Tiger Panzer lies desolate near the Potsdam station


During the withdrawal into the centre of Berlin, the SS execution squads went about their hangman's work with an increased urgency and cold fanaticism. Around the Kurfürstendamm, SS squads entered houses where white flags had appeared and shot down any men they found. Goebbels, terrified of the momentum of collapse, described these signs of surrender as a 'plague bacillus'. Yet General Mummert, the commander of the Muncheberg Panzer Division, ordered the SS and Feldgendarmerie squads out of his sector round the Anhalter Bahnhof and Potsdamerplatz. He threatened to shoot executioners on the spot.
Dari Berlin Downfall 1945 by ANTONY BEEVOR

One of the last photos of Hitler. On his left is the head of Hitler Youth, Arthur Aksmann

The last days of Nazi rule in Berlin is a grim saga of hopelessness and desperation.

The forces available for the city's defense included several severely depleted Army and Waffen-SS divisions, supplemented by the police force, boys in the compulsory Hitler Youth, and the Volkssturm which consisted of elderly men, many of whom had been in the army as young men and some were veterans of World War I.

To the west the XX Infantry Division, to the north the IX Parachute Division, to the north-east Panzer Division Müncheberg, XI SS Panzergrenadier Division Nordland were to the south-east, (east of Tempelhof Airport) and XVIII Panzergrenadier Division, the reserve, were in the central district.
Berlin's fate was sealed, but the resistance continued. The Soviet advance to the city centre was along these main axes: from the south-east, along the Frankfurter Allee (ending and stopped at the Alexanderplatz) from the south along Sonnen Allee ending north of the Belle Alliance Platz, from the south ending near the Potsdamer Platz and from the north ending near the Reichstag. The Reichstag, the Moltke bridge, Alexanderplatz, and the Havel bridges at Spandau were the places where the fighting was heaviest, with house-to-house and hand-to-hand combat. The foreign contingents of the SS fought particularly hard, because they were ideologically motivated and they believed that they would not live if captured.

On April 28 Heinrici rejected Hitler's command to hold Berlin at all costs, so he was relieved of his command and replaced by General Kurt Student the next day. On April 30, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself. General Weidling, defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviets on May 2.


A German soldier on the steps of Rayhskantselyarii. In its basement was a hospital with some 500 seriously wounded SS soldiers, as well as civilian women and children, who harassed the Red Army which demolished the building

This was not lucky enough to be alive

"White flags were hanging out of windows. "

In the closing days of the war, Charles Lindbergh was dispatched to Germany to gather information on the new aircraft the German Luftwaffe had developed such as the jet fighter and the rocket plane. He arrived in Germany just days after its surrender and roamed the countryside looking for information. He kept a journal of of his experience that provides us a glimpse of a nation that had aspired to conquer the world but was pulverized into defeat.

White flags were hanging out of windows in villages we passed on the way, just as they had been hanging out of many of the windows in Munich. At one point we stopped to ask directions from a group of young German soldiers - in uniform but disarmed and apparently plodding along on their way home - a half-dozen young men, courteous, giving us directions as best they could, -showing no trace of hatred or resentment, or of being whipped in battle. They looked like farmers' sons.

We were on the wrong road. We turned around, and I dropped a package of cigarettes as we passed them by. Regulations forbid our giving rides to Germans. There is to be 'no fraternization.' One is not supposed even to shake hands with them or give a bit of food or candy to the children.

The winding, stone-paved road up the mountain­side to Hitler's headquarters was filled with American military vehicles - jeeps and trucks filled with soldiers, WACS, and Army nurses, apparently bent on seeing where der Fuhrer had lived and operated.

. Hitler's quarters and the surrounding buildings had been heavily bombed - gutted, roofs fallen, in ruins. Craters from misses dotted the nearby hillsides. The pine forest around the buildings was stripped of limbs-trunks broken off, split, shattered.

We parked our jeep at the side of the building and climbed up over rubble to a gaping doorway. A few yards up the road I watched a German officer (in charge of the soldiers cleaning up) salute an American officer who passed nearby, bowing his head slightly as he did so. The American officer sauntered by, obviously taking no notice whatever, although the German held the salute until he had passed. I shall never forget the expressions of those two men.

Most of the walls of the building, being thickly built of stone, were standing firmly. Inside, rubble covered the floors, and part of the wooden furnishings had burned. We made our way over the debris on the floor of the room said to be Hitler's office to the great oblong gap which was once filled with a plate-glass window. It framed almost perfectly a high Alpine range - sharp crags, white fields of snow, saw-tooth peaks against a blue sky, sunlight on the boulders, a storm forming up the valley. It was one of the most beautiful mountain locations I have ever seen.

. We made our way back into the rear chamber. There was the stench of the dead-bodies somewhere only partly buried. We climbed up the mortar-strewn stairs, the end open to the sky where the roof had been blown off. Down again and to the kitchen, edging past a line of doughboys coming in, rifles over shoulders. The floor was covered with twisted utensils and broken dishes the stoves, with rubble thrown up by the bombs and fallen down from the ceiling."

"There was no hostility in her eyes. "

"As we approached Zell-am-See we entered territory still ruled by the German Army. Officers and soldiers were still armed and still directing what little traffic passed over the roads. Groups of soldiers stared at us as we passed but made no gesture. I could detect neither friendship nor hostility. In every instance where we asked directions, they responded with courtesy. The two of us in an American jeep drove through divisions of the Germany Army as though there had been no war.

On arriving at Zell-am-See in the late afternoon, we stopped at the newly installed local American Army headquarters to arrange for billets for the night. We were assigned a room in a nearby house which had been occupied by a German doctor. The family had been given notice to evacuate only a few hours before. (When our Army moves into an occupied village, the most desirable houses are selected and the occupants ordered out. They are permitted to take their clothing and certain household utensils and furniture - not essential furniture or beds. Where they go for food or shelter is considered none of the conquering army's concern. One of our officers told me that the G.I.'s in his organization simply threw out of the windows any articles they didn't want to keep in the rooms they were occupying.)

As I carried my barracks bag in through the door I met a young German woman carrying her belongings out. There was no hostility in her eyes as they met mine, simply sadness and acceptance. Behind her were three children, two little girls and a little boy, all less than ten years old. They stole glances at me, angry and a little frightened, like children who had been unfairly punished. Their arms were full of childhood belongings or light articles they were carrying out to help their mother."

Rujukan:
This eyewitness account appears in: Lindbergh, Charles, A., The Wartime Journals of Charles A. Lindbergh (1970) Ziemke, Earl F., The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany 1944-1946 (1975).

LOSING GERMANY. DESPERATE HITLER

In the spring of 1944, a Soviet invasion of Germany became a real possibility, as Soviet troops pursued the retreating German army. Hitler ordered the citizens of Germany to destroy anything that the enemy could put to good use. Embittered by defeats, he later turned against the Germans themselves. 'If the German people lose the war, then they will have proved themselves unworthy of me.'
Hitler suffered his greatest military setback of the war in the summer of 1944. More destructive by far than the D-Day landings, Stalin's Operation Bagration in Belorussia eliminated three times more German army divisions than the Allies did in Normandy. Hitler retaliated by demanding specific divisions of the German army stand fast to the last man - the very tactic that Stalin had deployed so disastrously in the early days of the war. Defeat for Germany was only months away.
Source: BBC


The commandant of Berlin Defense, Lieutenant General Helmut Reiman (in trench)


In the centre of Berlin that night the flames in bombarded buildings cast strange shadow sand a red glow on the otherwise dark streets. The soot and dust in the air made it almost unbreathable. From time to time there was the thunder of masonry collapsing. And to add to the terrifying effect, searchlight beams moved around above, searching a night sky in which the Luftwaffe had ceased to exist.


An exhausted group of foreign Waffen SS soldiers sought shelter in the cellars of the Hotel Continental. The place was already full of women and children who eyed the battle-worn soldiers uneasily. The manager approached them and asked if they would go instead to the air-raid shelter in the Jakobstrasse. The SS volunteers felt a bitter resentment that they who had been sacrificing their lives were now cold-shouldered.They turned and left. Fighting soldiers found themselves treated as pariahs. They were no longer brave defenders, but a danger. In hospitals, including one of the military Lazarette,nurses immediately confiscated weapons so that when the Russians arrived, they had no excuse to shoot the wounded.
A anti-aircraft gun lies near the Reichstag



'It's all over with the children,' she told him. 'Now we have to think about ourselves.''Let's be quick,' said Goebbels. 'We're short of time.'

Magda Goebbels took both the gold party badge which Hitler had given her on 27 Aprilin token of his admiration and also her gold cigarette case inscribed 'Adolf Hitler, 29 May1934'. Goebbels and his wife then went upstairs to the garden, accompanied by his adjutant, Günther Schwaegermann. They took two Walther pistols. Joseph and Magda Goebbels stood next to each other, a few metres from where the bodies of Hitler and his wife had been burned and then buried in a shell crater. They crunched on glass cyanide ampoules and either they shot themselves with the pistols at the same moment, or else Schwaegermann shot both of them immediately afterwards as a precautionary coup de grace

The two pistols were left with the bodies, which Schwaegermann doused in petrol from jerry cans, as he had promised. He then ignited the last funeral pyre of the Third Reich.


Double-click the "Windows Logs" option in the window's left pane.

Select a Windows log -- such as "System" -- to view its list of events in the top middle pane. Scroll down the list to the date that you suspect that someone was using your computer, and then click an event on that date to view its details in the bottom middle pane.

Warnings

  • You cannot see the browser history if the browser's private browsing feature is enabled, such as Google Chrome's Incognito Mode.
  • Information in this article applies to Windows 8.1, Mozilla Firefox 27, Internet Explorer 11 and Google Chrome 2.0.1700.107. Instructions may vary slightly or significantly with other versions.

References

Mengenai Pengarang

An avid technology enthusiast, Steve Gregory has been writing professionally since 2002. With more than 10 years of experience as a network administrator, Gregory holds an Information Management certificate from the University of Maryland and is pursuing MCSE certification. His work has appeared in numerous online publications, including Chron and GlobalPost.


Classroom Games and Activities for General Music

Are you looking for Musical Games and Activities for your classroom? Anda telah sampai di tempat yang betul! NAfME members shared some fantastic exercises they use in their classrooms – and now you can too! Check out some of their great recommendations below, and be sure to share yours on Amplify!

Bucket Band is an easy and inexpensive way to help teach rhythm – great activity for middle school kids!

Spin and notate activity!

Musical chairs writing! When the music stops pick up writing where the last person left off – writing can include note values, rhythm exercises, song lyrics to help the memorize a piece – you choose!


Scavenger hunt for an ice breaker!

Building chords with legos!

Get to know your students ice breaker – and helps students get to know one another!

What note am I? An Ice Breaker Music Game!

Incentive Program

All the students in Grades 6-8 are split up into one of three houses (sort of like in Harry Potter – which the kids love to reference). It builds community as students from other grades and classes work together to earn points and rewards.

Split students up into Music Teams.

Create six Music Teams named for the periods of music history: Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, 20th Century, and Post Modern.

Each team has a Team Leader. The leader gets to sit in a special chair and is the person I can call on to pass out their team’s notebooks, rhythm instruments, or to get their materials basket. The Team Leader chair rotates every two weeks. Make it random so that the students won’t be able to predict who the Team Leader will be.

Boomwhacker Station

At this station students work together to read simple melodies on the treble clef staff and play them together using Boomwhackers.

Coloring Station

Even the big kids like to color! At this station they are using a color by note worksheet. You can find free printable versions of the worksheets here

iPad Station-Flashnote Derby

At this station, students used the Flashnote Derby app to test their knowledge of the treble clef lines and spaces. This fast paced review really helps see who knows their notes!

Gone Fishin’

At this station students sit on a large tablecloth and match fish to fishbowls. Each fishbowl has a treble clef staff with 3-8 notes on it. By identifying th e letter names of each, students discover that it spells a word. Then they find the matching fish which had a word on it.

Spell a Story

At this station, students work on a pitch identification worksheet. As they identify the pitch names of the notes they complete a story.


Treble Twist Up

Everyone likes Twister, right? This game is a great deal like Twister. You can create a staff with a plain shower curtain and electrical tape, or with masking tape on carpet too. Students use a spinner and follow the directions “Right Hand E!” “Left foot B!” for a fun and physical way to review pitch names.

Teachers: You can download the template to make your own Treble Twist Up spinner here.


Ideas for the Last Day of Class

For some of us, the end of the school year coincides with Memorial Day. Folks are already making plans for those last few weeks of school, including ideas for the last day of class. The following recommendations were shared in social media when an NCTE member asked for suggestions for an end-of-school-year activity:

  • Give students a freewrite prompt—an inspirational quote about the future, a reflection on what they are proud of achieving in the course, words of advice to future students, etc. The student has five minutes to write and then discussion can follow.
  • Invite students to complete a survey about the class or the semester and provide feedback. This can be done on paper or via Google Forms or other online platform.
  • Play a game! Collect concluding paragraphs from novels that were read during the year. Ask students to reread each paragraph and see if they can recall which novel and author the paragraph was from, and then see if they can make some overall assertions about what great writers attempt to leave us with.
  • Spend 30 minutes leading them through a close reading of Elizabeth Bishop’s villanelle “One Art”—a perfect farewell poem that encapsulates all the paradoxes of memory and forgetting!
  • Share Faulkner’s Nobel Prize acceptance speech—a good way to end the course and reflect on the meaning of literature as they leave the classroom.
  • Take time for a discussion on the topic, “How is what you have learned in this class affecting your life outside this classroom?” Students seem to genuinely enjoy presenting examples of direct effects of the class on their day-to-day existence, and the critical thinking necessary to make the connections between “real” life and education supports mastery and retention of the material.
  • Encourage students to make a video, providing suggestions for the next students of the class or course.
  • Engage students in a study of humor! Invite students to research and share what made people laugh and why. Conclude with students describing their own favorite humor

What ideas could you add to this list?

Lisa Fink

Catatan Terkini

Kategori

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This indicates resources located on The Teacher's Corner.


    A fun and educational game to end the school year with.
    Submitted by: Terry Grillo - West Brook High School
    A teacher-created poem inspired by Shel Silverstein.
    Submitted by: Daphne Rice - Portland Oregon
  • Positive Words
    I have my students fill out a Positive words sheet on everyone in the class. They only have to fill in a couple of words for each student but they really seem to enjoy giving each other a lift. I have them fill-in the blanks, then I take the papers and create one paper for each student with the words that were said. When I had them out the smiles are great to see. It can be adjusted to any grade. Another thing that I have done is have them fill out a sheet on me to help me learn from them how to be the best teacher. I just make up a quick sheet with questions like What was your favorite part of this year, What did you like least, etc. It is really interesting what some of my prior students have told me and I have made some changes. .DOC Downloads: Positive Words Directions - Positive Words Paper
    Submitted by: Sharon Staudt - Westside Elementary
  • Advice from Grads
    At the end of the school year I always have my fifth graders write a paragraph offering advice to incoming fifth graders for the next year. When the new school year starts, I read their advice to the new students.
    Submitted by: Sylvia Portnoy
  • Memory Book
    An easy way to capture memories from the year. Have the students create a memory book from 3-ring binders and clear sheet protectors, using artifacts from the past year. On the front include a class photo.
    Submitted by: J. Rader
  • Vacation Calendar
    Put together fun, easy, and educational activities for students. Give each student a calendar for the months they will be on vacation with simple activities to do each day. For example: Count the stars that are in the sky Find 20 words from the newspaper that begin with "B" etc.
    Submitted by: Anne Martini
    Create your own or use our word list.
    Create your own or use our word list.
  • A class memory!
    An easy and creative idea to help students remember their fellow classmates. I give the students an extra large piece of construction paper, and give them a 4x6 patter to trace. Then I have them decorate around it, like a frame. I have a digital camera and I took a picture of the class on a sunny day. I had 25 copies made, one for each of my students. They then placed the picture in the frame and let everyone sign around it!
    Submitted by: Denise
  • AutobiographiesGrades Any
    Not only will this activity build writing skills, but it will also be a special keepsake. My grade 5 Language Arts students wrote simple autobiographies. They wrote 3-10 sentences for each year of their life. Then I copied and bound them into a "yearbook" with memory pages to give as end of the year keepsakes.
    Dikemukakan oleh:[e-mel & # 160 dilindungi]
  • Autograph BookGrades Any
    A great book your students will treasure forever. At the end of the year have each child make an autograph book and for an afternoon activity let them pass around their books and get everyone's signatures and notes for a summer keepsake.
    Submitted by: Jessica [email protected]
    Grades Any
    A fun letter of things to do that you can send home with your students.
  • "How To Survive 5TH Grade"
    An activity to end one year and prepare for the next. I have my children create an ABC book called, "How To Survive 5TH Grade." They each come up with a word for every letter of the alphabet. We do allow cheating for x, but the kids are good at the other letters. Then they illustrate their books. I save these and have them on the desks for next year's new students.
    Submitted by: Cheryle Hodges [email protected]
  • Ice Cream Cones
    Give students a chance to share what they've learned throughout the school year. Trace a triangle for the cone. Students will draw at least 3 scoops and cut out. On each scoop they write something they learned from the school year. Then they glue the scoops attaching them to the cone.
    Submitted by: Danielle
  • The Jolly PostmanGrades K-2
    A fun way to wrap up the school year and the study of fairy tales. I read The Jolly Postman to my class. I also have read many of the other fairy tales over the school year. Then I have my class write letters to the characters in any of the fairy tales and make an envelop with an appropriate address. Ex: Jack Bean (from Jack and the Beanstalk) 7 Lima Bean Rd. Beansville, NY 90783
    Submitted by: [email protected]
  • Last-Day Water StationsGrades Any
    Help your kids cool off and have a little fun in the process. The last week of school was into the 90 degree days this year and at the spur of the moment, we decided to have a Water Fun day. All the kids in our school (about 400) wore/brought their swimsuits and towels to school and we went outside for 2 hours in the morning and 1 1/2 in the afternoon to take part in about 15 different "water" stations. (similar to our field day activities). Stations included beach volleyball, basketball hoop in a baby swim pool, obstacle course (through a sprinkler, over hurdles, through tires, etc.), sprinkler limbo or jump rope (using those hoses with holes in them), filling buckets with frisbees from a kiddie pool, water balloon activities including several relays, tug-of-war and to top it off, the village fire truck was there all day to spray anyone and everyone. We finished activities in time to dry off or change clothes so that no one went home on the bus wet. It was a great cool off and quite a nice change for the last week of school.
    Submitted by: [email protected]
  • Puzzle FunGrades Any
    Personalize your end-of-the-year puzzles. For the last day of school I make a word search with everyone's first name. Use our Word Search Maker! An additional tip: Use the "Fun Options" to scramble their names before they can find them - it is super simple and quick to make a fantastic word search!
    Submitted by: [email protected]
  • Summer WritingGrades 2+
    Help you and your students keep in touch. Over the summer I have my class list with addresses of all my students, and also send the list home so we can all write over the summer. This works well by email as well. You can use our Writing Prompts for inspiration!

Back to Summer Activities


Tonton videonya: PENGURUSAN BILIK DARJAH: BERTANGGUNG JAWAB DI DALAM KELAS #cikguaini #pdpr2021 #abm (Mungkin 2022).


Komen:

  1. Shashura

    Who can tell the thread !!!!!

  2. Wilton

    Ini adalah luar biasa!

  3. Yobar

    The authoritative point of view, cognitively..

  4. Kihn

    the remarkable answer :)

  5. Willhard

    Dalam perkara ini adalah. Terima kasih atas bantuan pada soalan ini.

  6. Brashicage

    Kata -kata apa ... idea yang hebat, hebat



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